Indian women are younger and weaker than Swedish women when developing gestational diabetes, a new study from Lund University shows. The researchers also found a gene that increased the risk of gestational diabetes among Swedish women, but which, on the contrary, proved to have a protective effect among Indian women.
Gestational diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin production and insulin secretion during pregnancy. The prevalence differs between different populations and can be partly explained by way of life and genes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the differences between pregnant women in India and Scandinavia.
"Individuals of Asian descent have two to seven times the risk of developing the disease compared to Europeans," says Geti Aurora, a doctor in the Indian state of Punjab and a researcher at the Lund University Center for Diabetes Center, who conducted the study in India.
The study included 507 Swedish women from Malmo and 4,018 Indian women from the state of Punjab. The results were later replicated in groups of 398 women from Finland and 780 from Norway. Diagnostic criteria in Sweden are 10 mmol / l after two hours of glucose tolerance test. To be consistent in all studies, they used the same criteria in all studies and therefore ended up with a total of 5,703 participants in the study of all studies, of which 274 had gestational diabetes.
This is the largest study to compare gestational diabetes among Europeans and neuropaths and the first study to compare the incidence of gestational diabetes in India with Sweden.
The result shows that the incidence of gestational diabetes was greater among Indian women than in Swedish women. Indian women are on average ten years younger when they develop the disease, they are also weaker and more insulin sensitive.
"That Indian women appear to develop gestational diabetes already in a smaller BMI, although they are sensitive to insulin, may indicate a more severe defect in insulin secretion," said Rasmi Prasad, a researcher at the Lund University Diabetes Center, who led study.
The researchers examined 85 previously known risk genes for gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes. One of them may be associated with gestational diabetes in Indian women, but not in Swedish. On the contrary, another gene, CRY2, which is relevant to the circadian rhythm, has been shown to have a protective effect in Indian women, but is associated with an increased risk for Swedish women.
"It's interesting that the same gene has the opposite effect on the Indian and Swedish populations, and the question is whether it can be linked to the Scandinavian seismic seasons that do not occur in India," says Rasmi Prasad.
India with 1.3 billion inhabitants has great genetic differences. People from northern India have similar genetics with individuals from the Middle East, Central Asia and to some extent in Europe, while the southern population of India belongs to a more non-free genetically defined group. The country has the highest number of people with type 2 diabetes, and the number is dramatically increasing.
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