Sunday , April 11 2021

Bouting neutron stars reveal their inner pain

Bouting neutron stars reveal their inner pain

Observations per kilowatt. Credit: П.К. Blanchard / E. Berger / Pan-STARRS / DECam.

We do not really understand the neutron stars. Oh, we know that they are are – they are the remnants of some of the greatest stars in the universe – but the discovery of their interior is a little inconvenient, because the physics that keeps them alive is only poorly understood.

But every time after a while, two neutron stars break together, and when they do, they tend to blow up, throwing out their quantum hoses all over the space. Depending on the internal structure and composition of neutron stars, the "eutective" (polite scientific term for vomiting an astronomical missile) will look different from us, observers tied to the Earth, giving us a rough but potentially powerful way to understand these exotic creatures.

Neutron star Nugat

As you can guess, neutron stars are made from neutrons. Well, most often. They also have some protons floating around them, which is important for later, so I hope you remember.

The neutron stars are the remaining nuclei of some really big stars. When these giant stars close to the end of their life, they begin merging the lighter elements with iron and nickel. The gravitational gravity of the rest of the star continues to break those atoms together, but these fusion reactions no longer generate excess energy, which means nothing prevents the star from continuing to devastate itself.

At the core, pressures and densities become so extreme that random electrons are pressed into protons, turning them into neutrons. Once this process has been completed (which lasts less than ten minutes), this huge ball of neutrons finally has something to resist the further collapse. The rest of the star jumps out of the newly opened nucleus and flares up in the beautiful supernova explosion, leaving behind the core: the neutron star.

Spirals of the accident

So, as I said, neutron stars are huge neutron pellets, with tons of material (several times in the sun!) Placed in a scale that is no greater than a single city. As you might imagine, the interiors of these exotic creatures are strange, mysterious and complex.

Are neutrons inserted into layers and formed by small structures? Is the deep interior a thick neutron soup, which only gets to know the stranger and the stranger goes deeper? Did it give it even more scarier? What about the nature of the bark – the outermost layer of packed electrons?

There are many unanswered questions about neutron stars. But, fortunately, nature gave us a way to look at them.

A small downside: we must wait to bump two neutron stars before we get a chance to see what they are made of. Do you remember the GW170817? You really do it – it was the great discovery of gravitational waves that emerge from two nebulae neutron stars, along with numerous observations of a fast telescope through the electromagnetic spectrum.

All these concurrent observations gave us the fullest picture of the so-called. kilowatt, or powerful power outflows and radiation from these extreme events. The special episode of GW170817 was the only one ever captured by gravity waves detectors, but it is certainly not the only thing that is happening in the universe.

Neutron hope

When neutron stars collide, things are really rushing. What makes things particularly unusual is the small population of protons that lead inside the neutron neutron star. Because of their positive charge and superfast star rotation, they can create an incredibly strong magnetic field (in some cases the most powerful magnetic fields in the whole universe) and these magnetic fields play some evil games.

As a result of a collision with a neutron star, the torn remains of dead stars continue to spin around in a fast orbit, some of which are expanding in a wave of titanic explosions, fueled by the energy of the crash.

The remaining vortex material quickly forms a disc, thus a disc thread with strong magnetic fields. And when strong magnetic fields are found in fast rotating discs, they begin to overlap themselves and amplify, to become even stronger. Through a process that is not fully understood (because physics, like the script, becomes a little messy), these magnetic fields rotate close to the center of the disk and the bottom material out of the system completely: a plane.

The muse, one at every pole, exploded outside, carrying radiation and particles away from the cosmic car accident. In a recent paper, the investigator examined the formation and lifespan of the jet, especially considering carefully how long it takes to set up the jet after the initial collision. It turns out that the details of the launch mechanism of the jet are dependent on the internal content of the original neutron stars: if you change like neutrons' structured stars, you get differences in collision stories and different signatures in aircraft properties.

With more heinous observations of kilonovas we can still understand some of these models and learn what makes neutron stars really work.

The researchers note the formation of a 6.5 billion light-years magnet

More information:
David Lazati and Rosalba Pern. Jet-cocoon outflows from neutron star mergers: structure, light curves, and fundamental physics "arXiv: 1904.08425 [astro-ph.HE].

Bouting neutron stars reveal their internal muscles (2019, April 26)
taken on April 26, 2019

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