The debate over potential damages and the benefits of the talks raged for several years. But the results of the grand trial in the United Kingdom, however, provided the biggest victory for the pro-vaping side. He found that people who tried to quit smoking were almost twice as likely to succeed for more than a year if they used electronic cigarettes compared to people who held for nicotine replacement therapy.
The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine on Wednesday, recruited around 900 smokers in the UK. All smokers went to the centers to help them give up. There, they were randomly assigned one of the two interventions.
One group was delivered to a three-month supply with a standard cut-off treatment, such as nicotine rubber, patches or lozenges. The other was given an e-cigarette starter kit, full of several bottles of e-juice, and those people were encouraged to continue listening. The two groups also received at least once a month a week counseling. For an objective measurement of their progress, they also monitor the levels of breathing carbon monoxide (common toxin in cigarette smoke kept in the exhausted air).
For one and four weeks, people with e-cigarettes were less likely to have a sense of need to smoke. They also felt less irritated or incapable of focusing one week in an attempt to quit. And most importantly, at each point in the study, these users increasingly refrained from smoking cigarettes. By 52 weeks, 18 percent of the group of e-cigarettes were still excluded from cigarettes, compared with 9.9 percent of the standard therapeutic group.
It may not seem like a huge success rate, but it's unknowingly difficult to quit smoking. Even the success rate using the nicotine replacement therapy seen in this study is actually quite high in comparison to other studies to measure its effectiveness. E-cigarette users also had more chances to reduce their smoking by 50 percent or more, even if they did not give up completely.
"This is a well-designed and much-needed study that can have important clinical and political implications for the use of e-cigarettes to help with termination," said Scott Weaver, an epidemiologist at the Public Health School in Georgia, who is not associated with the new study , told Gizmodo.
Previous trials and studies have tried to find out how well e-cigarettes can help smokers to give up. But some studies (including the one from Weaver) have shown no real benefit compared to other options for termination. However, according to the authors, their first clinical trial is the testing of modern e-cigarettes in people who are actively trying to give up. These devices now often have more nicotine and come in a more suitable form from first-generation devices.
"Something that people often do not recognize is how vaping products have become a better substitute for cigarettes over time, so the results are not so surprising," said David Levy, a professor of oncology at the Medical Center at Georgetown University, unrelated to research, for Gizmodo.
Another important fact, according to Sven-Eric Yord, an anesthesiologist, pharmacologist and biochemist for Cancer University at Duke University who has studied the potential risks to maturity, is how to treat these patients.
"The study was conducted under medical supervision and with the medical behavior of smokers who tried to give up," Yord said, who is not related to the research. "Does not support unlimited availability of e-cigarettes".
Weaver added: "The results of this study show that, under these conditions, e-cigarettes have improved the likelihood of quitting smoking. However, especially in the United States, smokers do not use e-cigarettes at all."
For example, Wyver says, most smokers here are not sealed every day, or stuck while regularly smoking. Culture in the UK that surrounds smoking and e-cigarettes is also different from the United States.
Britain, for one, is already quite welcomed to the idea of using e-cigarettes as a termination tool. In 2015, the government's public health agency, Public Health England, approved an independent report stating that e-cigarettes were significantly less harmful than tobacco cigarettes and should be accepted as a way to help smokers quit. And they are similar to the board with the latest findings.
"This landmark shows that e-cigarette transfer can be one of the most effective ways to quit smoking, especially when combined with direct support," says Martin Dochle, head of the Public Health Department of England's Public Health Department, says in a statement. "All smoking services should be given to smokers who want to quit using an e-cigarette."
But Yord noted that newer devices, such as Juul pod, have recently arrived in the UK. These devices have up to three times more nicotine than the devices used in the clinical trial. Juul's rapid popularity in teenagers in the United States, which has provoked fear that it may lead more young people to take cigarette smoking and recover the success we saw through reducing teenage teens, could explain a more responsible attitude of doctors in The United States enthusiastically accept e-cigarettes as an aid to termination.
While some surveys (including Levi) have cast doubt on the idea that teens will induce more teenage smoking, agencies such as Food and Drug Administration put pressure on policies that will limit eco-cigarettes to taste that will be widely available in stores or on the Internet. Some states, including Vermont, are even floating bills for banning the sale of flavored products together.
Another concern for e-cigarettes is that many users will simply never stop using them. Even in the current study, approximately 80 percent of people are still regularly stuck by the end of the year. Ideally, we would like people to get used to nicotine and potentially harmful toxins supplied by e-cigarettes. But it can very well be a price worth paying.
"It's a concern, but people who are transferring, still have probably lower health risks," Levi said.
Despite impressive findings, Levy and other Gizmodo experts have said that more research is needed in the US and elsewhere, using newer devices, before physicians here can wholeheartedly support extraction as a superior disruption aid against the standard treatment (most likely with regular counseling to raise).
"Caution is needed," said Levi. "Smokers should especially recognize the importance of the complete movement of e-cigarettes, but I think, however, that it has an important role to play."[NEJM via Queen Mary University of London]