The possibility of life on Mars has been a subject of significant interest to NASA because of its resemblance to Earth, but to date no evidence of past or present life as we know it has been found. However, recent advances have suggested that the Red Planet once flowed in water, meaning that Mars may have once collected life in conditions much warmer and humid than today. On October 8, 2015, NASA announced its strategy for human exploration and colonization on Mars, the concept operates through three distinct phases leading to a fully sustainable Red Planet civilization that it hopes to implement sometime in the mid-2030s.
Three years later, Dr. Garvin revealed what the space agency hopes to find during Prime Minister's documentary "The World of Tomorrow's World".
He said in 2018: "When Mars and Earth were formed more than four and a half billion years ago, they were like brothers with every opportunity to grow up and be as they are today.
"So, now we have the story of two diverting facilities, but still, we are sharing some of the basic building blocks that make them so scary.
"But Mars is much smaller than Earth and one of the things we've recognized through the Solar System is that size matters.
"Planetary size affects how the atmosphere of the planets evolved."
The narrator explained to viewers why a decent atmosphere might have wiped out living organisms on the surface.
He said: "Mars is actually six times smaller than Earth, its smaller core is cooler than that of our planet.
"Over time Mars cools faster and its volcanoes finally die.
"With nothing to feed on, the atmosphere gradually dissolves into space, leaving Mars at the mercy of cosmic rays and the coldness of space.
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Dr. Garvin explained why a future mission could be a huge step forward in understanding the history of the Solar System.
He added: "If we knew that this self-replicating molecule, which we would call 'life' on the planet Earth, existed on Mars, it would be the greatest discovery in human history.
"It would have changed everything."
NASA's Mars mission is divided into three distinct phases leading to a fully sustainable civilization.
The first phase, already underway, is the "Dependent Earth" phase, which will continue to use the International Space Station until 2024, validating deep space technologies and studying the effects of long-lived space missions on the human body.
The second phase, "Securing the Land," went into a secular space for most of its tasks, testing deep space objects and validating the capabilities needed for human exploration on Mars.
Finally, Phase 3, the "Land Independent" phase involves long-term Red Planet missions with surface habitats that require only routine maintenance, and harvesting of Martian resources for fuel, water and building materials.