The retirement age for women in Ukraine is again thinking about changing. Previously, Ukrainians were entitled to retire at the age of 55, while men – at 60 years. Since 2011, they have begun raising the retirement age – annually by six months. In addition, as the Constitutional Court ruled, long retirement. That is, in 2019, women retire at the age of 59. It is planned that in 2021 the retirement age for women will increase to 60 years.
But all this will be relevant if the rules are not changed again. The Assembly has registered a bill on the retirement age. It suggests that women with 30 years of service will be able to retire at 55. The initiative is beautiful, but where will the government get the money?
What they offer
Nele Sagelec is now 58 years old, and before retirement needs to work for two years. If she were a little older – born literally a year earlier – she could have retired for a long time. But Nela Vyacheslav fell under the so-called "Tigipko reform" – back in 2011. Then the government decided to raise the retirement age for women to 60, but to do so gradually – by 2021.
The authors of the new account, which was registered in the Verkhovna Rada, believe that in 2011 women were treated unfairly. Like, retirement age should not depend on the date of birth.
For example, two women work in a sewing factory. Eugenia Sidoruchuk is 58 years old, only one year younger than her colleague Olga Bondar. But at the same time, Eugenia Grigoryevna is due to finish 60, and Olga Vasilieva is already receiving a pension – along with her salary, as she continues to work.
If the new bill is passed, women will be allowed to retire at age 55. But one very important limitation is stated in the same document: they will be allowed to do so only on the condition that they are fired. That is, working at the same time and getting a pension of 55 will be prohibited.
Current 55-year-olds do not believe it is possible to live without a pension. Therefore, some of them agree with the proposal of deputies and additional "envelope" earnings.
"They offered me a job – the pay is good there. But they hired full staff. They say, if you want, we will take it with no effort, "says Nela Vyacheslav.
The only thing that still sticks to the old job is that you have to get another two years of retirement. But is there enough strength to keep working? The Institute of Gerontology says that women over 55 in Ukraine, as a rule, are exhausted, have many chronic diseases. But they do not have time for treatment and rest due to gender inequality.
"Enna is an advanced workaholic and she's a leader at home, she's a housewife – she does everything around the house. We have very few men who take care of child care, cleaning the house and the like," the researchers said.
Therefore, after 55 years, women use all their spare forces. Because of this, the body is aging faster. The institute says they conducted a study of the Ukrainian era of biological life and found that most of them were five years older than their passports.
"Actually, we go out [на пенсию] not at 55. If we leave at 55, we're already 60 in terms of body wear. According to our health. And we're leaving at 60 – that's actually 65, "the institute notes and backs the idea of retiring at 55.
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The bill was introduced in parliament by the "People's Servant" faction. It just turned out that some of the MPs, even from this political force, were against the document. Like, for example, the head of the Social Policy Committee Galina Tretiakova. She is sure that work after 55 years is beneficial for women themselves.
"Work, rejoice in what you do. It's already a proven fact that as soon as a person quits an activity, including a job, he or she goes away faster. A person is a creature who needs to feel that someone needs them" .
Problems with Pension Fund holes and problems with the IMF
The women's retirement bill at 55 has already been passed by the Verkhovna Rada since the previous convocation. But it did not come into force. Ultimately, then-President Poroshenko vetoed it. Will there be any votes in the new parliament and President Zelensky will sign it, we will know very soon. But the law can be very expensive for the whole country and cause a lot of problems.
If lawmakers vote "for," nearly two million women can retire before the deadline. This is a huge burden on the Pension Fund (PFM), a hole that has already surpassed 170 billion hryvnia. At the same time, 10 working Ukrainians are already participating with 11 retirees. That is, there are more pensioners in the country than those who pay for PC contributions.
Can Ukraine bring such bills under such conditions?
"All the factors are likely to speak out against it. 55 years is in principle impossible. I don't know how to go back to 55, "said Olga Pisulina, a pension legislation expert.
If you simply increase the number of pensioners, there will be fewer and fewer working people in Ukraine. As a result, pensions will become lower.
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In addition, the law is unlikely to be supported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It will be difficult for borrowers to understand why people in Ukraine should retire at 55. For example, in many EU countries men and women have long enjoyed a well-deserved vacation at the age of 65. And in Italy, Iceland and Norway the retirement age is already 67 years.
"In most EU countries, on the contrary, the retirement age is steadily rising. Many benefits are being canceled. There is no longer the opportunity to retire sooner than before," said Michael Barslund, Belgium's aging program manager.
The health status of Europeans is much better and life expectancy is higher. In addition, the level of retirement ultimately allows them to live to the fullest, not to survive.
Recall, say on the "Today" page how the payments and rules for calculating pensions have changed in the last 10 years.
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