What causes diabetes, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye problems, tooth disease, nerve damage, and foot problems? What we need to know about the symptoms and treatment of diabetes is for you in our Diy news
WHAT IS DIABETES?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas can not make insulin or the body can not use the insulin it produces.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, acting as a key that allows glucose from the food we eat to pass from the bloodstream to the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrates are divided into blood glucose. Insulin helps glucose enter cells.
Failure to produce or use insulin effectively leads to elevated levels of glucose (known as hyperglycaemia) in the blood. In the long run, high levels of glucose cause damage to the body and various organs and tissues.
There are three main types of diabetes:
– Type 1
– Type 2
– Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but is most commonly seen in children and adolescents. When you have type 1 diabetes, your body produces very little insulin or insulin, meaning you need daily insulin injections to control your blood sugar level.
– Diabetes type 2 is more common in adults and accounts for about 90% of all cases of diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not use the insulin it produces well. The cornerstone for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity and healthy eating. However, over time, patients with type 2 diabetes will need to use oral medications and / or insulin to control blood glucose levels.
– Diabetes in pregnancy is a type of diabetes that has high blood sugar during pregnancy and is associated with complications in both the mother and the child. Usually disappears after pregnancy, but women are affected and children are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in their later life.
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
In type 1 diabetes, symptoms are often sudden and life-threatening; therefore it is usually diagnosed fairly quickly. In type 2 diabetes, many people have no symptoms; Other findings can not be recognized as part of the aging of aging.
Therefore, complications of diabetes may already be present when symptoms are observed.
Common symptoms include:
– More thirst than ever
– Very common urination
– You feel tired and lethargic
– Constant sense of hunger
– Unstated wounds
– Itching, skin infections
– Blurred vision
– Unexplained weight loss (type 1)
– Gradual placement of weight (type 2)
– Imbalance of the mood
– Pain and tingling in the legs and hands
Depending on what type of diabetes you have, blood sugar monitoring, insulin and oral medications can play a role in the treatment. Healthy nutrition, weight control and participation in regular activities are also important factors in the treatment of diabetes.
General treatment with diabetes
An important part of diabetes management; To maintain your weight with a healthy diet and exercise plan as much as your overall health:
Healthy diet: Unlike popular perceptions, there is no specific diet diet. You need to focus on reducing your diet in more fruits, vegetables, lean proteins and whole grains (high in nutrients and fiber, fat in calories and fat) and in reducing saturated fats, refined carbohydrates and desserts.
However, it may be difficult to understand what and how much you should eat. A dietitian can help you create a nutrition plan that suits your health, diet preferences and lifestyle choices.
Physical activity: Everyone should exercise regularly, and people with diabetes are no exception. Exercise reduces blood sugar levels by transferring sugar to cells in which it is used as energy. Exercise also increases insulin sensitivity, which means your body needs less insulin to transport sugar in your cells.
Ask your doctor about the exercises you will download. Then select the activities you want, such as walking, swimming or cycling. The most important thing is that physical activity is part of everyday life.
Try to practice 3-4 times a week for at least 30 minutes or more. The exercise interval can be up to 10 minutes three times a day. If you have not been training for a long time, start slowly.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes treatments
Treatment of type 1 diabetes includes insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, frequent blood glucose measurements and carbohydrate numbers. Treatment of type 2 diabetes primarily involves changes in lifestyle, blood sugar monitoring, diabetes medication, insulin or both.
Watching sugar in the blood
Depending on your treatment plan, you can check and record your blood sugar four times a day or more often if you use insulin. Careful follow-up is the only way to ensure that the blood glucose level remains within the target range. Patients with type 2 diabetes who do not use insulin often control blood sugar much less.
Even with careful management, blood sugar levels can sometimes change unpredictably. You will learn how the blood sugar level changes with food, physical activity, drugs, illnesses, alcohol, stress, and fluctuations in hormone levels among women.
In addition to daily blood glucose monitoring, your doctor will most likely recommend a regular A1C test to measure the average blood glucose level in the last two to three months.
Compared to daily blood glucose repetition, the A1C test shows how well your diabetes treatment plan works in general. High levels of A1C may indicate that you need to make changes in oral medication, insulin resistance or diet plan.
The goal of A1C may vary depending on your age and various other factors, such as other medical conditions that you may have.
While people with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy, many people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes also need insulin treatment.
There are many types of insulin, including fast acting insulin, long-acting insulin and medium-sized options. Depending on your needs, your doctor will decide who will use it.
Since abdominal enzymes interfere with the action of insulin, insulin can not be taken orally to reduce blood sugar. Generally, insulin is injected with a thin needle and syringe or insulin pen – a device that resembles a large chemical pen.
The insulin pump can also be an option. The pump is a device that is worn out by your body. The tube connects the insulin tank with a catheter placed under the skin of the abdomen.
– Oral or other medicines
Oral or injected drugs are sometimes prescribed. Some diabetes medications stimulate your pancreas to produce and impregnate more insulin. Others prevent the production and release of glucose from the liver, which means you need less insulin to transport sugars into cells.
Others prevent the effects of gastric or enteric enzymes that break down carbohydrates or make your tissues more susceptible to insulin. Metformin is usually the first drug that is recommended for type 2 diabetes.
In some people with type 1 diabetes, pancreatic transplantation may be an option. There is no need for insulin therapy with a successful pancreatic transplant.
However, transplants can not always be successful – and these procedures create serious risks. Lifelong immunosuppressants are needed to prevent organ rejection. These drugs can have serious side effects, so transplants usually need to be made for people who can not control their diabetes or who require kidney transplantation.
Although not considered treatment for type 2 diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes who are obese and whose body mass index is greater than 35 may benefit from this type of surgery. People who had gastric bypass experienced significant improvements in blood glucose levels. However, the long-term risks and benefits of this type 2 diabetes procedure are not yet known.
Treatment of diabetes during pregnancy
Controlling the level of blood glucose is essential to keeping your baby healthy and avoiding complications during childbirth. Apart from healthy eating and exercise, your treatment plan may include monitoring blood sugar and, in some cases, using insulin or oral medications.
Your doctor also monitors your blood sugar levels at birth. If blood sugar increases, your baby can release high insulin immediately after birth, which can lead to low blood sugar levels.