The animal was born in Los Angeles. But the light of day was in New York. So, inconsistencies are not enough. Do you really say that he or he? Mickey, mouse, celebrates his 90th birthday. There are also legends about Mauswerdung. In a garage in California (do all American success stories start there?) Young Walt Disney raised – yes, what in the cradle? A rabbit named Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The rodent was strikingly similar to his future heir, but his ears were longer. Oswald made a career in the film in 1927, but then his father fell with the powerful Universal Studios, who wanted to catch the rabbit. And so Walt Disney, in cooperation with a cartoonist Ub Iwerks, invented another animal: Mortimer, mouse. Mortimer? Wait, said Lillian Disney, the creator's wife: a name that's too preposterous. His name is Michael, soon Mickey.
The life of this mouse reflects American time and moral history in the 20th century. The figure was adapting to different eras again and again, even at the expense of their identity. The premiere of the film at the Colony Theater on Broadway began on November 18, 1928. In the triumphal procession Mickey & # 39; and around the world – behind the wheel of a steamer. "Steamboat Willie" is the name of the legendary short film whose main theme – Mickey whistling by ship – still adorns the first films of all Disney movies. It is a work of brilliant graphic ideas – and music, which appeared here for the first time in the used animated film. It was a sensation then. The development of jazz influenced him: a brazen mouse, at that time still equipped with anarchic features, does not allow himself withbut on to play the animals that are on board the ship: the goose becomes a trombone, a goat to a lyre, a cow for a xylophone – in times of politically incorrect klepochwili such difficult play was still possible. It was frivolous, you could see the Minnie Mouse, adored by Mickey & # 39; Shocking!
Mouse through the ages – Mickey is 90 years old
Walt Disney would say later about the beginnings of the entertainment empire he founded. Mickey's debut ninety years ago was a huge success, and helped previously unpublished works on the screens. For example, the funny jewel of "Plane Crazy", the loving parody of aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh, personified here as the Mäuserich. Soon Mickey learned to speak; in the voice of its creator, his first words were: "Hot Dogs!" in the movie "The Karnival Kid" (1929). And then, in 1935, the musical rodent appeared for the first time in color, in the nine-minute film "The Band Concert." Mickey experienced an artistic point in the film Fantasia (1940), which first hit, but later received critical acclaim, especially in the famous episode of "The Sorcerer's Apprentice," based on Goethe's ballad "The Sorcerer's Apprentice."
Mickey should change over and over again in his life – and thus became an indicator of equally changing American lifestyleThe first, serious test of his suitability to the national symbol Mickey had to go through in the 1930s and face those fans who were quite undesirable – maybe not? It is well known that Adolf Hitler had a weakness for animated Disney cartoons. The Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels noted in his journal in 1937: "I give the Führer twelve Mickey Mouse movies for the holiday, he is pleased with this, he is pleased with this treasure." Until now, the subject of controversial debates about the extent to which Walt Disney probably – at least initially – he reciprocated worship, he was often attracted by racist tendencies, and even suspected of being a member of the "German American Volksbundd".
However, in 1943, Disney distanced himself clearly – with the patriotic anti-Nazi propaganda film "Face of the Führer Der." Not Mickey Mouse, but Donald Duck is experiencing a nightmare nightmare at the oil factory as a laborer in a German munitions factory (borrowed from Chaplin's Modern Times), who does not know what to do because he still has to show Hitler's greeting. Bathed in the sweat of his forehead, Donald wakes up and realizes that the stretched arm he has seen in his dream is in fact a small reproduction of the Statue of Liberty next to his bed.
Keith Haring, a pop-art artist who owes himself a well-known image of a mouse, called Mickey "the symbol of America" and as such a character often comes in honor (and disgrace). For example, in 1944, allied forces used the code word "Mickey" when landing in Normandy. So the roles in Disney's universe changed: Donald's Duck took over the unsuited weaker, and Mickey had to dump his vices.
A tailored citizen model
While Mickey appeared as an unbridled thug in the early thirties, parallel to his career as a Disney brand ambassador, he eventually became a model citizen, promoting the righteous, police (in the form of Commissioner Hunter) supporting her work. This reflected the nostalgia of the 1950s – an adaptation that led Mickey to another serious identity crisis. For the next decade, the mouse was slandered during the hippie movement as Spiesser. Comic book writer Gerhard Seyfried from Berlin says: "Mickey was an informer for us, a figure in law and order that helps to restore the" comical moral code. "In his comic book" Future Subjunkies ", created together with the cartoonist Ziska, Mickey, a radical counteracting image, appears as an overgrown, bloodthirsty beast.
With the change of Mickey's character, there was one of the outsiders. The thick line became more refined, the face became more round, the pupils, at first only black ovals, they had pupils to make them look friendly; she dressed in white gloves – and long pants instead of the original shorts, because of morality.
The comic booklets with the mouse have never been printed over the decades, but with the film career they have gradually begun to decline. After 1953, Mickey could not be seen on the silver screen for thirty years, until 1983 in "Mickey & # 39; s Christmas Carol" and the cameo in the Robert Zemeckis film "Who Framed Roger Rabbit" (1988). The increasingly ironic pop culture that was presented in it did not match the respectable mouse Mickey had become. The loss of the picture has deepened the linguistic devaluation, because the term "Mickey-Mousing" has become synonymous with shipping and trivialization.
Today, Mickey is trying ironically and mischievously to find a connection with the present. In the latest comic, he fights aliens called "Vegan." What should someone whose first words are "Hot Dogs!"
Mickey Jubilee exhibition in New York
CFT. · Mickey returned to his place of birth on his birthday. Disney has invited a reunion of journalists from all over Europe to the jubilee exhibition in the Meat Packing District of the metropolis. In the former industrial complex there are interactive installations with a mouse, which are mainly intended to appeal to children, as well as pop-art interpretations of Mickey, with whom probably only those who can age a little with an anniversary boy can start. The most ambitious works of the colorfully mixed spectacle include a video installation in which the original "Steamboat Willie" from 1928 contrasts with the bright reinterpretations of contemporary animators. In the psychedelic "Cosmic Cavern" Mickey wants to prove that he is also at home in the world of hippies. Many works by Japanese manga artists and offers interesting variants of the Far Eastern American Topos. In addition, there is really kitsch similar to the picture, painted on old wooden chairs with cinema, as well as poor crocheting by the street art artist, London Kaye. This is not about the history of culture – something unusually modeled is an important "department of paints and inks" at Disney Studios, also called "Rainbow Room", in which films were once colorful by hand, frame by frame. It's more about pure pleasure, and halfway through the course the restaurant is waiting with confetti-colored ice. And certainly there is a shortage of compilation of all kinds of goods from recent decades, including the iconographic Mickey phone. Sarah Jessica Parker was inaugurated, but without Mickey shirt in the Sex and the City TV series.
Mickey – The True Original Exhibition. 60 Tenth Avenue, New York. Until 10 February.