Reportedly, cinema history began this way: on December 28, 1895, several dozen spectators gathered in the Grand Café in Paris to attend the premiere of the new attraction. The August and the Louis Lumiere brothers presented their cinema the same day. Among her one-minute films was the one that left a special impression on the audience: in the projection of "Arriving at the train at the station of La Ciotat" the crowd had panic, some spectators were jumping from their places, others would have hiding under chairs or running away from the hall .
For inexperienced viewers, the locomotive was supposed to be so deceptively real, so realistic that they thought the train was approaching real and afraid of their life. So far, at least the legend that quickly became independent and has to date. But the panic myth in the auditorium does not correspond to historical facts. There was no "Arrival of a Train" depicted at the cinematographer's premiere in 1895, nor did there be any contemporary documents or indications of such a panic in the screening of the short movie a few weeks later in January 1896.
August and Louis Lumiere were lucid business people: the legend of panic in the auditorium was probably a clever PR player of entrepreneurs, so they wanted to praise their cinematographers in the audience and attract curious people. This is shown by research by scientist Martin Loyperinger.
Discomfort to the cinema
However, the legend still functions today as a founding myth of cinema medium. Even famous film critics like Helmut Karasek did not want to leave. Karasek wrote in 1994 on the occasion of the centenary of the cinema in the "mirror": "Although the film train in black and white flickering (not in the natural colors and dimensions of nature) was moving towards the crowd and although the only sound that accompanied it, the monotonous knocking projection speeds were in the movie perforation, the audience felt physically threatened by the train and reacted in panic.
It sounds like a good story: The new medium for the film is so convincing that it confuses the audience. In fact, the movie revolution sees. Suddenly, life on the go became portrayed. The utopia of a truly realistic image, a copy of reality, suddenly seemed closer than ever. At the same time, this aesthetic revolution was obviously not quite appealing to contemporaries. Because the anecdote of panic in the auditorium also expresses discomfort to cinema: Is this medium believed at all? Do not you have the potential to deceive and deceive your viewers? These are the same questions that arise today in the face of the Internet. They are typical of media history. Whenever a new medium begins to reign, there is a doubt. Legends often make the media more effective than they actually are.
From its invention, the cinema continued to develop towards the more vivid picture. The end of the twenties, the sound film prevailed. The first movie with feature films, called "Tali", was a musical film: "Jazz singer" caused discord among contemporaries like Virginia Woolf and Aldous Huxley. The writers felt threatened: suddenly, the film also raised the floor. Quiet movie stars like Charlie Chaplin never swore to make a sound movie. Chaplin broke this oath in 1940 with the Great Dictator, Satyr of Adolf Hitler and the soundtrack itself.
Whenever a new medium begins to reign, there is a doubt.
In the 1940s, the color film was established – another step in the direction of life similarity. This was followed by sophisticated sound systems in the cinema, which the audience suggested to them were part of the action. And then the 3-D film: the Renaissance of the idea that cinema can copy, really replace, reality. And in the meantime, the technology of virtual reality is like a remake of the Lumiere brothers' public relations preacher.
When the radio began to prevail in many households, it was also accused of deliberate deception and dangerous interference. Quite similar to the Internet today, it is said that the radio was destined for false news and propaganda. Particularly durable and subtle here is a legend of mass panic, after Orson Welles's radio "The War of the Worlds", at the end of October 1938, the US population was terrified and terrorized.
Circle of aliens
On the eve of the previous year, about eight o'clock, the frightened voice of the radio announcer interrupts the music of CBS: Important news! One scientist reported that unusual gas explosions were spotted on Mars. A few minutes later, a spokesman said that near Grovers Mill, New Jersey, "huge fiery objects" fell on the farm. Soon the transmitter will transfer to a local journalist: "A great God, something comes out of the shadows like a gray snake, it looks like a tentacle, the body is big like a bear and shines like a damp skin, but the face! It … it's indescribable!"
The landing of foreigners in the United States was a radio drama adapting the novel "War of the Worlds" by H.G. Wells. Then only 23-year-old director Orson Welles celebrated his breakthrough. Wales presented the arrival of aliens as a quasi-live coverage, which he mounted in a conventional radio program. It sounded like for listeners who heard or later included the note at the start of a 60-minute show that is now following a fictional radio game, as if they were witnessing an unintended interruption of the usual program.
Believing the headlines of big newspapers the next day, it is said that thousands of Americans have fallen for this game of fiction and reality. Many jumped into their cars and fled in panic. However, this massive panic, like the hysteria in the auditorium of the Cinématographe premiere, is an urban legend. As the media historians Jefferson Pullie and Michael J. have shown, Sokolov, Wales, in fact, almost nobody deceives them: The same evening, a listener's interview was conducted by telephone. When asked: "Which program do you listen to?", Two percent of the respondents said that they included the CBS; Some said they were listening to a radio game from Orson Wells. However, no one claimed to have seen a landing newsletter for aliens in the United States. "The supposed panic," the scientists write, "was so small it was virtually impossible to measure the night of the show."
Push it against the radio
The turmoil became a mass phenomenon only in the days after that – in the printed press. Obviously, with the new medium, with doubt. The presumed panic was a welcome occasion to accuse the radiologist of irresponsibility and delusion. So, a day later, the "New York Times" titled "Terror From Radio" – terror from the radio. And the title of "New York Zulu News" writes: "The fake radio war is terrifying in the United States."
Radio, whose strength lies precisely in the authenticity and immediacy of reporting, was intercepted by the press at least as suspicious as the writer's film before it appeared.
Rock & # 39; n & # 39; roll and satanic messages
Legend fell on fertile soil. This sparked mistrust of a medium that actually promised them terrible things to its contemporaries: through radio, the Americans learned about the threatening speeches of Adolf Hitler from around the Atlantic. The US headlines also found echo in Germany: on October 31, 1938, Hamburger Nahirihten wrote: "The plane landed, the big panic scenes in the state of New York". In April 1939, Adolf Hitler accused the media of the widespread fear of the war in the speech to the Reichstag and opposed "artificial torture," which eventually led to even interventions from the planets being possible to hold and lead to horrible horror scene. "
But the mythical history of media criticism was far from over. Thus, in October 1969, the incredible story made circles of hiding on rock and roll recording adolescent satanic messages, if you play them back. In the 1980s, Neil Postman wrote a worldwide bestseller, making television dumb. Today it is above all smart phones that are worthy of everything: the often cited title "Death of Self" imitates only one of the alleged dangers; Like a device, not a person responsible for tragic accidents.
Created: 11/21/2018, 6:58 pm