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Africa invited to reduce inequalities of all kinds

April 22, 2019

Marrakech, Morocco, April 22 (Infosplusgabon) – Participants at the fifth African Regional Sustainable Development Forum called on the continent to reduce inequalities of all types that undermine the achievement of sustainable development goals at the end of their mandate. a three-day meeting in Marrakech, Morocco.

Based on the 2019 Sustainable Development Report in Africa, whose synthesis was presented at this forum, the participants condemned the persistence of inequalities of all types that hinder the achievement of SDG and called for implementation of all appropriate strategies for their reduction.

"Inequalities in income and wealth, access to health and education, and results in Africa have widened as African countries have achieved relatively high economic growth rates over the past 25 years. There are significant inequities in regional, national, level, community and household, "the report said.

In addition, it is important to consider not only the overall growth rates, but also how this growth is achieved, because the sources of growth can have a significant impact on poverty reduction.

Growth in Africa is largely driven by the export of capital-intensive goods, which advocates volatile, often far from inclusive growth, which has little impact on employment and poverty. Thus, the report notes that Africa as a whole suffers from high rates of unemployment, unemployment and vulnerable jobs.

The opportunities for quality education and participation in economic activities to improve income are improving very slowly, limiting revenue growth for the most vulnerable populations.

Progress towards target 10 depends on progress towards other goals, in particular Goal 1 for Poverty, Goal 2 for hunger, Goal 3 for health, and Goal 4 for quality education. Similarly, it is argued that progress towards goal 10 has positive effects on achieving other goals.

Unfortunately, Africa is one of the most unequal regions in the world. Estimated use of the Gini coefficient, inequality in earnings in Africa, excluding North Africa, was 0.43 in 2011.

The continent is home to 7 of the 10 unequal countries in the world, and the human development index is reduced by 33%, unless inequality is taken into account.

In 2013, the percentage of people living in extreme poverty (earning less than US $ 1.90 a day) is estimated at 34.8 percent.

Inequalities between the regions are as follows: "In Central Africa, extreme poverty is estimated at 54% against 43.3% in West Africa, 41% in East Africa, 17.7% in Africa, South Africa and only 2.7% in North Africa. The poverty gap, which measures the difference between income and the poverty line, was estimated at 13.5% in 2013. "

According to experts, the widening of inequalities hampers progress in eradicating poverty, global and regional prosperity, peace and security, social cohesion and human development. Inequalities at household level mean that children and women are most affected by poverty. Thus, almost half (49%) of children in Africa, outside of North Africa, live in extreme poverty.

Talking about growth, the report notes that the income of the poorest is only slowly improving, and social protection systems are weak.

At least two African countries (Burkina Faso and Namibia) reported growth rates of over 5% of the income of the poorest 40% of the population during the period 2012-2016.

However, four countries experienced negative revenue growth for this group: South Africa (-1.3%), Niger (-0.06%), Uganda (-2.2%) and Zambia (-0.6%).

Very few people support social protection systems: in 2015, only 5% of unemployed in Africa received cash benefits, compared to 22% globally.

It is regrettable that at the legal level, several countries have at least one discriminatory law in their legal framework, despite the progress made in recent years.

The report reveals that beyond income and wealth, inequalities are manifested in disparities in access to social services.

In 2015, only 43% of the rural population in Africa, with the exception of North Africa, had access to drinking water, compared to 82% of the urban population. Similarly, only 37% of the rural population has access to electricity, compared to 88% in North Africa.

Meeting of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and its partners on "Strengthening people and guaranteeing inclusiveness and equality", the fifth FARDD, held from 16 to 18 April in Marrakesh, aimed to advance the implementation of the Strategy for sustainable development of 2030 and the goals set out in the Agenda for Africa 2063.


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