Studies made in Europe by the medical society Artery have discovered a new overview that can identify whether someone, even young, has solid arteries that can cause lesions most commonly found in the elderly. This means that the age of the arteries may be different from the patient's biological age and the older they are, the greater the risk to the heart. The information is from the President of the Latin American Arterial Association (Artery Latam) and the Latin American Association of Hypertension (Lash), the Cardiologist Eduardo Costa Durro Barbosa, and marks the National Day of Prevention and Combating Hypertension, which is being celebrated today (26).
The new test method uses a pulse wave (VOP) velocity generated by each heart attack as a biomarker of vascular impairment, which is estimated by means of central pressure.
Studies have shown that the vascular wall has at least two functions. The inner layer of lining and blood vessels, called endothelium, functions as an organ and has the function of elastic contraction of the artery, Barbosa said. The middle wall is a layer that contains enough elastin, when the face is young and gives the elasticity of the vessel. Over time, people convert elastin into collagen and become more difficult. It is arteriosclerosis, or arterial sclerosis, in which the vessel loses its elasticity. Because of this, it was said that in the elderly, blood pressure is increasing.
"And in the past, it was considered normal. It was physiological, the container was aging, and it was normally the pressure to increase," said Eduardo Barbosa. "In fact, it was found that this also caused damage, the ship is hardened, the pressure increased, the vessel loses its ability to accommodate, expands to accommodate the pressure that is greater," he explained.
With the continuity of the research, doctors began to compare what was a container of a normal patient and another patient. "And we saw that the vase of a sick patient had a hardening, as if it were older. We saw from this that it is related: the more difficult or harder a vessel, even if the person was young, the behavior of that was 70 years, already had a plaque ". Hence, the artery began to investigate and discovered that the assessment of arterial elasticity could better explain the patient's risk factors.
The Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommends using this method among middle-income young people in order to limit the risk factors because the speed of blood circulation through the vessel may increase and the artery will be older and does not correspond to the biological era of the man. With this, physicians can make an early diagnosis and predict who will have cardiovascular diseases, which will have cerebral ischaemia or heart attack.
"We do not expect the plate to appear, because it already knows that the vessel is ill and can detect early the problem with the heart. Knowing the speed of the pulse rate, a distinction is made, which is achieved by measuring the pressure centrally." According to Artery Latam, important data are pulse rate. "And to know the speed of the pulse, we need to know the central pressure." With this information, doctors can determine the quality of arteries in favor of the biological era of vessels and choose treatments suitable for each patient.
The adoption of this new test method can reduce death rates due to cardiovascular diseases, which account for more than 380,000 deaths in Brazil, according to the Brazilian Association of Cardiology (SBC) and approximately 18 million deaths worldwide, according to World Health Organization (WHO). With an early diagnosis, the doctor may try to avoid heart disease. "So, we will reduce not only the rate, but also mortality from cardiovascular diseases, which is the most deadly disease in the country today."
Data from the SUS Data Department of Information Technology show that 30,622 people were killed due to a Brazilian stroke last year. Deaths from heart failure were 22,465, and acute myocardial infarction reached 10,118 people.
Studies have shown that some types of cancer are associated with arterial stiffness, as well as liver disease, poor muscle nutrition, metabolism, and that it all occurs due to vascular aging, which is the basis of human aging, and is not related to biological age on the face.
The equipment that provides pulse wave velocity measurement was approved by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (Anvisa) at the end of last year. The national company is already selling this equipment, the price ranging from R $ 20 to R $ 25 thousand. Eduardo Barbosa said there are already recommendations from the European Association of Hypertension for doctors to use this new method, as well as the Brazilian Society of Cardiology.
At present, the new review is only available for private patients. Artery Latam intends to extend it to health plans contracts and, at a later stage, reach patients of the Single Health System (SUS). For this, a protocol justifying the importance of the exam will have to be worked out, Eduardo Barbosa said. Depending on demand, he believes that the cost of the device may be reduced, just as it did with cardiac catheterization and the use of stents.
The courses given to Brazilian experts show how they can interpret data provided by the equipment and what indications are.