Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are important drivers of antibiotic prescribing in primary care. Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for UTIs is likely to cause antibiotic resistance. In a new study at the University of Leeds, the scientists aimed to describe the current investigation and treatment with antibiotics to explore the possibilities for improved antimicrobial management.
Their study recommends that doctors urgently need a fast and accurate urinary tract infection (UTI) test to reduce antibiotic prescribing.
During the study, scientists observed nearly 500,000 cases of UTI in patients treated in England between 2011 and 2015, from a record of 390 medications.
Abbreviated that one out of five patients treated at UTI had an examining facility to analyze their concerns. The tests were not completed on a regular basis in the men of the ladies or in persons returning for second treatment as their indications persisted, contrary to NHS rules.
The study also found that one in five patients who must return to their doctors for a second round of treatment for UTI is prescribed the same antibiotic that was first given, which is not recommended practice and may increase the chances of developing resistance. .
The study shows that people across England have been given recipes that are less likely to cure their infection and may increase the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.
The study, therefore, recommends that specialists require gradually accurate and rapid testing abilities for UTI and should consider various antibiotics if the first course of treatment is short.
Lead researcher Dr Rodriguez, of the Institute of Health Sciences at Leeds University, said: "Doctors are currently limited in their options when someone shows signs of having UTIs and they urgently need access to accurate, rapid diagnostic tests.
"UTIs are one of the most common reasons for prescribing antibiotics, so the potential contribution that they make to antibiotic resistance can be very significant.
"In addition, many patients can make matters worse by taking residual antibiotics prescribed and using them to treat other infections or by not finishing treatment."
When individuals are treated for antibiotic infections, some of the friendly bacteria that usually live in the body create protection from anti-infection agents. These microscopic organisms can transmit protection from other bacteria that can cause pollution later, making these new diseases gradually difficult to treat.
In their study, analysts took Shander to about 500,000 cases of UTI in patients in England treated between 2011 and 2015. Most patients were treated with antibiotics, and of these, 17,000 (4%) cases expected patients to come back to their doctor because their disease had not cleared.
For those repeat visitors, a significant proportion is prescribed the same antibiotic they were originally treated with, with only 80 percent correctly given a different antibiotic capable of managing their infection.
Worryingly, the rate at which male patients had to return for second treatment for the same UTI increased by about 20% during the study period (from 5.2% in 2011 to 6.2% in 2015).
This increase in re-prescribing of antibiotics should be monitored as it may be related to the increase in antibiotic resistance.
Scientists have also found that patients who have recently been prescribed antibiotics are more likely to need further treatment to manage UTIs.
Patients who have been prescribed antibiotics for the past three to six months are 37% more likely to seek a second treatment for their UTIs than those who were not given antibiotics last year.
Individuals who had been prescribed antibiotics in the previous one to a quarter of a year were almost twice as likely to seek follow-up treatment. Moreover, those prescribed antibiotics last month were multiple occasions that should be needed for further treatment, unlike those who were not given antibiotics in the previous year.
"These figures indicate that antibiotic resistance was the cause of treatment failure," the scientists noted.
The study is published in the journal EClinicalMedicine.