Friday , October 22 2021

Find out more about electricity – why batteries should not be fully charged and emptied? / Article / LSM.LV


The world is working on improving the ability of batteries to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a researcher from Latvia, also deals with this. In LTV transmission, Cognitive Impulse, says that the battery life should not be fully charged and completely discharged.

What was the victory of civilization in exchange for electricity?

  • 6th century BC in ancient Greece. Yoke discovered static electricity by rubbing a piece of amber against the wool.
  • In 1771, Italian physician Luigi Galvani noticed that the rod had been trodden on the leg when it was turned.
  • In 1800, the Italian physicist Alesandro Volta created the first electric battery.
  • In 1820 André Marie Amper understood how this magnetic field affects this.
  • In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered an electromagnetic induction and laid the foundations for creating an electric motor.
  • In 1879, the American inventor, Thomas Edison, patented the first bulb.

It is said that at a time when Faraday was showing a breakthrough in relation to the Prime Minister of his country, the politician asked if he would need it. Faradey was determined at the time – I do not know, but I am convinced that taxes will be collected.

Meanwhile, in another science, the legendary personality of Mikołaj Tesla went a different way – he had the idea of ​​releasing electricity for everyone. The basic idea behind the Tesla reel is that the center in the city generates electricity, but light bulbs or other non-electrical appliances receive the necessary energy from it. The problem was that the number of users was very small. So the idea of ​​Tesla's reel at least now looks like a dear and ineffective way of delivering electricity to consumers. Who knows, maybe the idea of ​​electricity available as wireless Internet is not the right time.

Much better with James M. Maxwell, thanks to which his ideas go to work. His idea of ​​how a moving magnet generates electricity has made a breakthrough in the development of civilization. The magnet moves electrons like water. Incidentally, for such a comparison, the same electricity is often used, and where there is water, there is also electricity or electricity and all related units of measure.

The basic principles of electrical physics

So what is the flow of electricity? These are electrons – small molecules in small atoms. It is important to remember a few basic principles of physics to understand why electrons create electricity.

Physicists illustrate electrons like spheres, which, like any other, have, although very small, but still attractive forces, but unlike others, they have a very distinct rejection force. Because atoms without electrons also have other particles – protons, interact with each other. Usually, how much in the atom there is no proton, so much electron and we do not feel special electrical discharges. When, for example, rubbing one surface against the other, we get electrons from one surface to another, and then the number of particles changes, they start to attract particles of other objects. And all this can be measured as electricity.

Electric charges can be transferred from one surface to another. For example, this happens every time hair, synthetic clothing is emitted, even if it pulls legs on the ground and touches metal objects.

On the other hand, the electromagnetic field determines whether the electrons will move as a bridging river and will create direct current, or they will fly here 50 times per second, generating alternating current.

Discovering energy storage

All currently available types of power generation, except for solar energy, generate alternating current. However, you can only accumulate direct current. Constant current is a form in which energy is also stored in batteries, and the types of batteries are as different as their tasks: to operate devices, to accumulate generated energy.

The way in which and how long the batteries are able to store energy depends directly on the chemical elements contained in them. In turn, the loader affects the behavior of these elements. "At the moment when we accumulate energy, some ions move from one side to the other, and electricity does not flow in. When charging the battery, the ions are aligned on the other side and wait. We connect the external load and the current begins to flow in the opposite direction, and ions move backwards, which is why they are in the second point of balance, "explains Kristaps Vitols, a research fellow at the Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering in Riga (RTU).

When the batteries run out or do not perform the task, they do not perform the required reactions again, so the molecules do not stand in the right places. "Do not throw the battery in. Because then the ions went over, they settled in their place, and the longer they are there, the more they want to stay there." Then the batteries begin to lose their capacity. so long, "says Vitol.

This means that the battery should not be fully charged and completely discharged. "In one case, ions remain on one side and on the other side.

Both of these extreme points degrade the battery "- explained the researcher.

Not so long ago, it was believed that batteries should not be partially charged, because then they figuratively remembered their condition and did not try to be full. It turns out that this is not a myth, not a truth, because everything in it is from which the batteries are made. "Those built into devices such as lithium-ion batteries have no memory effect. In the past there were nickel-cadmium batteries that were remembered – if they were half-charged, they were only half-working," says Vitol.

To further increase the ability of batteries to accumulate energy, the world does not earn millions in this industry. In Latvia Kristaps Vitols is one of those scientists who, looking for the best battery solutions, care about them as a living organism. "There is no electronics, only chemistry and science about materials, combined in such a way that the batteries are longer, better and cheaper. When they are to be transplanted, cells must be combined with programs that care for the well-being of each cell" – explained the scientist.

The richness of the battery depends on the temperature, but to be able to accumulate electrons, they must be able to move.

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