Influenza viruses include A, B and C. Influenza A is a virus that causes a worldwide epidemic. The virus is periodically mutated and causes epidemics. The outbreaks every 1 to 3 years are caused by small antigenic mutations, and the global pandemics every 10 to 15 years are caused by large antigenic mutations. E Since the twentieth century, there have been about 5-6 cases of influenza pandemic in the world.
Specifically, the global epidemic between 1918 and 1919 during World War I is a major pandemic with about 20 million deaths. In 1957, the incidence rate was reported to exceed 50% of the urban population. It gets up. In the latest pandemic in 2009, up to 570,000 deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular events were estimated. This global epidemic is caused only by hepatitis A virus, which occurs when mutations in the genetic structure are more than 50%, resulting in a completely new antigenic form.
P Path to infection
The flu quickly spreads from person to person with small droplets produced when the patient coughs or sneezes. Airborne infections can also be found in densely populated areas, such as schools, boats and public transport. It can survive up to 48 hours on the surface of objects contaminated with nosebleeds or pharyngeal secretions (telephones, computer keyboards, doors, coffee cups, etc.), enabling indirect transmission. The incubation period is 2 to 3 days, and the transfer period is 3 to 4 days from the onset of clinical symptoms. The infected person is immune to the virus virus.
◇ Symptoms and complications
The flu often starts abruptly after the incubation period of one to four days (two days on average). Initially, systemic symptoms such as fever, fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue and loss of appetite are prevalent. Muscle and headache muscles are usually the most painful, and calf muscle pain is significant in children. Joint pain, tears, eye burns and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as stomach pain, diarrhea, and vomiting, can be accompanied. Systemic symptoms usually last about three days. Body temperature suddenly rises to 38-40 degrees with constant fever, but it can also be intermittent fever. Respiratory symptoms, such as hoarseness and sore throat, appear as systemic symptoms decrease and become more severe, lasting 3 to 4 days after fever.
Influenza B is similar to Influenza A, but passes a milder course. Influenza C, on the other hand, is not common and does not cause epidemics. Children have more severe fever and more frequent cervical lymphadenitis than adults. Causes infections of the upper respiratory tract, laryngeal bronchitis, bronchitis, capillary bronchitis, pneumonia, etc., and is often accompanied by temporary glasses of papular rash. Infants are often associated with sepsis.
Complications can result in pneumonia. Sung Young-Gu, a professor of infection medicine at Gangnam Severance Hospital, said: "There are viral pneumonia caused by the influenza virus, bacterial pneumonia caused by secondary bacterial infection and pneumonia caused by mixed virus and virus infection. In the elderly, the incidence of lung complications is much higher than in other age groups. Other complications include otitis media in children, myositis during influenza B infection, myocarditis and pericarditis, and Reye's syndrome. ”
Injecting antiviral drugs can shorten the duration of the flu. However, a more important antiviral treatment is enough rest and sleep. Drink plenty of liquids and increase humidity with a humidifier. Increasing humidity can prevent the flu virus from propagating well in a dry environment, making fever and coughing patients feel more comfortable, and sputum is released when coughing with sputum. It helps. If you do not eat well in children to add calories, sugar or honey water, such as a light or ionic drink, is good. You can give juice, milk or fruit juice little by little, but children with fever often have vomiting or diarrhea, so take small portions and drink slowly.
Medications include aspirin and acetaminophen as antipyretic analgesics, which can reduce high fever, headaches and muscle pain, but should be consulted by a doctor when using aspirin in children as it can cause side effects called syndrome. . Professor Song said: "Even if you are under 3 years old or have an adult with a fever of more than 3 days, the cough lasts long and becomes strong, accompanied by chest pain, shortness of breath or sputum. I did it.
◇ Management and prevention
In high-risk groups, such as the elderly, patients with chronic diseases and immunosuppressive patients, it is important to prevent colds. As a general precautionary measure, it is best to avoid places where there are many people, and after exiting make sure you keep your hands, feet and face in place. You should brush your back and brush your teeth. Enough nutrition and avoid overwork.
Inoculate vaccines with proactive prevention. All children 6 months of age and older should be vaccinated, if vaccine supply is limited, the following groups may be given priority. The first is a high-risk group with high complications and mortality when the flu develops. Elderly people aged 65 years or older, patients with chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, diabetes, renal failure, etc.) and patients transplants, etc.), and the second group is capable of spreading the virus. influenza in such high-risk groups. A prominent example is a physician who contacts a patient in a hospital.
Therefore, if there is a high risk group in the family, vaccination is effective not only for the person but for the whole family. In addition, persons who care directly for high-risk patients, those whose absence may be a problem as a result of influenza or upper respiratory tract infections (eg, are in critical positions in the workplace or are essential to society ), working in very dense environments If the risk of transmission is extremely high, people who want to be vaccinated against the flu are entitled to vaccination.
Professor Song said: "If you have a severe hypersensitivity reaction, such as anaphylaxis after previous influenza vaccination or if you have Guillain-Barré syndrome within 6 weeks after previous vaccination, you should avoid repeated inoculation. It is contraindicated in neonates and adolescents taking aspirin (at risk for Ray's syndrome), and in pregnant women taking disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal insufficiency, chronic immunoglobulin or hemoglobinemia. I do it ”
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