Sunday , August 1 2021

What vaccines do children need at different stages of their lives?



There are about 16 common diseases across the American continent that can be prevented with vaccines.

While adults generate antibodies throughout their lives, infants and children under 6 years of age are part of the group most vulnerable to infections.

Ideally, vaccines are available for the whole population. However, since procurement is limited, the smallest tend to have priority in health services.

"Children get most of the children vaccines in the first months of life because it is very important to be immunized as soon as possible, "explains Dr. David Moreno, Coordinator of the Spanish Association for Pediatric (AEP) Vaccine Advisory Committee.

And, this population group should receive up to 49 doses of vaccines before reaching 6 years if we consider not only the first dose, but also the strengthening.

Infections that prevent vaccines are more common and serious in the first two years of life.

It must also be considered that the administration of several vaccines at the same time no adverse effects about the child's immune system, says the Pan-American Health Organization.

According to age groups, this is the way in which children should receive the first dose of this vaccine:

  • Newborns: hepatitis B. The World Health Organization also recommends a vaccine against tuberculosis at birth in some countries.
  • At 2 months: rotavirus, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, meningitis and pneumococcus.
  • After 6 months: The time has come to put an influenza vaccine that is repeated once a year.
  • Between 9 and 12 months: It is advisable to vaccinate the baby from yellow fever.
  • Of 12 until 18 months: touch a dose of previous memories and add the chicken pox vaccine, hepatitis A and triple viral measles, mumps and rubella.
  • Between 4 and 6 years: this is very important, experts warn, repeat the vaccines from diphtheria, tetanus, and coughing, as well as polio, varicella and triple measles, mumps and rubella administrations.
  • At 9 years: International organizations recommend the vaccination of boys and girls against human papillomavirus.

This is a list of common diseases that prevent vaccines from the US National Vaccine and Respiratory Disease Center and justify early vaccination in children:

Diphtheria, tetanus and cough

This triple vaccine attacks three life-threatening diseases, two of which are linked to the respiratory system.

On diphtheria forms a thick layer on the back of the nose or throat that can cause difficulty breathing or swallowing.

For its part, the tetanus causes painful muscular rigidity, while a great cough It is a very serious respiratory infection.

Pneumococcal disease

They are conditions caused by bacteria called pneumococci. They are often mild, but can cause severe symptoms, life-long disabilities or death.

On pneumonia is within this group.

Meningitis and other infections

The vaccine's medical name is haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).

The most common type of Hib disease is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the tissue that leads the brain and the spinal cord.

The diseases of this group they are very serious.

Hepatitis A

It is a serious liver disease caused by a virus.

It can be complicated causing liver failure, joint pain and kidney, pancreas, and blood disorders.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B can be very serious.

Most people with it may feel ill in a few weeks and up to a few months.

Complications can aggravate the disease that causes chronic liver infection, liver failure or liver cancer.

Influenza

Flu Viruses infect the nose, upper respiratory tract, throat and lungs.

It is transmitted very easily through the air or through contact.

The most serious complication is pneumonia, or infection in the lungs.

Poliomyelitis

Also known as polio. You can cause paralysis for life and for death.

Smallpox, pgo and рubéola

This triple vaccine, known as MMR, is one of the most important in the vaccination card.

On smallpox It is a serious respiratory disease (in the lungs and airways) that causes a rash and fever.

It is very contagious, says the National Center for Vaccination and Respiratory Diseases.

On rubella It is also known as "German measles". If a pregnant woman becomes infected, an unborn baby can develop serious birth defects or die shortly after birth.

Of course, mumps can cause prolonged encephalitis, deafness, or inflammation of the testes or ovaries.

Rotavirus

It causes diarrhea and intense vomiting. It mainly refers to babies and toddlers.

Diarrhea and vomiting can lead to severe dehydration.

Viral measles

It is a disease that causes a rash with nervous blisters and fever. A person with varicella may have up to 500 vials.

The Pan American Health Organization estimates that, thanks to vaccines, two to three million deaths a year are avoided.

"Increase rates of global immunization you can save another millions and a half of people per year, "the agency said.

The immune response to vaccines is similar to that produced by natural infections, but there are fewer risks.

"It has been proven that despite the young age, immune response Vaccines are very good and very safe, "said Dr. Moreno.

For example, natural infections due to influenza, rubella virus or polyvivirus can cause cognitive deficits or birth defects in the case of congenital rubella and reversible paralysis.




Source link