For a long time it was the "dark side" although that part of the Moon was also illuminated by the Sun.
"The Darkness" refers, on the contrary, to the fact that it is a person who can not be seen from the Earth.
And also for sure, because it has not been explored no spacecraft landing on its surface. Until now
As this Friday, China launched the Chang's "e-4" missile mission and a research vehicle to land in the crater Von Kármán, located on that dark side.
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The mission left the Xichang satellite launch center and the launch of the moon is expected in early January.
Crane Von Karman is a place of interest for scientists because it is within the oldest and largest area of impact on the moon's surface, the Ithken basin.
It is believed to have been formed by the impact of a giant asteroid for billions of years.
Due to a phenomenon known as "synchronous rotation", we see only one person on the moon, since it is also necessary to rotate on its own axis rather than be done around the Earth.
The purpose of the Chang's mission is to open the road for the delivery of earth samples on Earth from that lunar region.
The research vehicle is planning to examine the geology of the region and the composition of its soil.
The dark side, or more precisely, the farthest hemisphere on the moon looks quite different from the one we see on Earth.
Scientists explain that there is an older and thicker crust, full of craters. There are also several of these "seas", those dark basaltic plains created by the flow of lava that are evident on the nearby side.
It is believed that the powerful impact produced by the Aitken basin can cross the bark until it reaches the lunar mantle. Chang's e-4 instruments can investigate whether this is what happened and shed light on the early history of the only natural satellite on Earth.
The mission will also study the conditions for transmitting radio waves from the far side of the Moon. The test is designed to lay the foundations for the future creation of radio telescopes in that region of the natural satellite, which is isolated from the radio signals on Earth.
The module of origin will carry a 3 kg potato seed potato and a herbaceous plant from herbaceous plants to carry out a biological experiment.
This experiment in the "lunar miniosphere" was designed jointly by 28 Chinese universities.
"We want to study the breathing of seeds and photosynthesis on the moon," said Liu Hanung, director of the experiment and vice president of Chongqing University (located in central China), before the Xinhua News Agency a few months ago.
Xie Gengxin, the chief designer of the experiment, told Xinhua: "We need to keep the temperature in the mini-sphere in the range of 1 to 30 degrees and to properly control moisture and nutrition."
"We will use a tube to direct the natural light from the surface of the moon to the plant to grow plants."
When located farther than the natural satellite, the drop-down module will not be in line with the Earth's field of view. Therefore, to send the information to the control center must use the Queqiao satellite, placed in orbit from China in May.
The design of the investigation is based on the one of its predecessor, Chang & # 39; e-3, which landed in the Mare Imbrium region in 2013, although there are some important modifications.
China lunar ambitions
Two cameras are charged on the vehicle for exploring the vehicle; a radiant experiment built in Germany called LND: a spectrometer that will perform low-frequency radio stations.
The vehicle carries a panoramic camera; radar for exploration under the lunar surface; spectrometer for recording minerals; and an experiment to examine the interaction between the solar wind (a particle-free particle current) and the surface of the moon.
Chang's e-4 is part of a larger lunar research program by China. Chang's first and second missions were designed to collect information from orbit, while the third and fourth were built to perform operations on the surface of the Earth's satellite.
Upcoming missions of Chang & # 39; e-5 and Chang & # 39; e-6 will aim to bring samples of rocks and lunar earth on Earth.
Materials and energy for 10,000 years
In 2013, the BBC had the opportunity to review Ouyang Qiyuan, a Chinese researcher in the lunar exploration and deep space department, to send the Chang's mission to e-3.
Ziyuan said the scientific mission will serve to test the new technology and added that "China needs its own intellectual team to explore the moon and the solar system."
The researcher highlighted the objectives of the program: they were to reach the moon, stop safely, bring samples collected on Earth's Moon, and eventually send piloted missions there.
According to this scientist's vision, the moon's exploitation can be invaluable to mankind.
Because there is no air there, the solar panels can work much more efficiently, and as Ouyuan says, the belt from these panels on our satellite can "hold the whole world".
The moon is also rich in helium-3, a possible fuel for nuclear fusion, that "can solve human energy demand for at least 10,000 years"
"It is full of resources, mainly rare minerals, titanium, uranium, which are very few on Earth and these resources can be used without restrictions."
"There are many possible developments, it's nice, so we hope we can use the moon to support the sustainable development of people and society," the Chinese expert said.