Scientists at the University of Newcastle (UK) found 131 gene of resistance to antibiotics, which turn some microorganisms into very heavy superb bacteria against treatments in the soil of the Arctic region.
This discovery was done in grounded witnesses taken out on the island of Spitsbergen, in the archipelago Svalbard (Norway), which has so far been regarded as impeccable against this type of pollution.
«Polar regions are among the ecosystems of the Earth that should be clean, and which enable us to set the reference threshold of the era to antibiotics in order to understand the rate of expansion of the pollution of gene resistance, the statement said David Graham, director of the investigation.
But the results of the study, which were published in the journal International Environment Agency show that only a few points in the region of Conshthinden, on the island of Spitsbergen, remain clean.
Scientists have discovered there antibiotic resistance genes that are found in India, nearly 13,000 kilometers. These include blaNDM-1, a gene detected in hospital hospitals in 2008, in urban and surface waters in 2010, and which provides multiple resistance or multireustility to antibiotics. Since then, blaNDM-1 has been discovered in more than 100 countries, sometimes in the form of new variants.
All these genes cause concern, because its presence shows that there are microorganisms or DNA fragments which give resistance to microorganisms against the treatment of infections.
The blaNDM-1 gene stands out because gives resistance to carbapenem, one of the types of antibiotics used as a last resort when others failed. Currently, there are several antibiotics to fight the bacteria that have received this resistance gene.
In particular, Graham's research has 131 genes related to nine types of antibiotics used to treat many infections.
For example, the gene that gives tuberculosis-resistant bacteria was detected in all soil samples, while the blaNDM-1 gene was found in 60% of controls.
Transmission through birds
According to Graham, these genes may have reached the Arctic soils above all through the faeces of birds and the arrival of other animals, because people rarely visit the area.
"Less than three years after discovering the presence of blaNDM-1 in the urban waters of India, we find it thousands of miles away in an area where there is minimal human impact" explained the researcher.
"The invasion of areas like the Arctic strengthens the idea of how effective and rapidly the expansion of antibiotic resistance is, which confirms that solutions to this problem must be global rather than local », affects.
In fact, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), resistance to antibiotics is a global crisis, and one of the biggest threats to global health, food safety and development.
People have accelerated research
"What people have done through overuse of antibiotics, anywhere in the world, is acceleration of the rate of evolution -The bacteria- creating a new universe of resistant species that have not existed so far », Graham explained.
The consequence is that, while natural bacteria can easily be adapted and become resistant, there are several developing antibiotics because, "Simply, it's not profitable to do them", according to Graham.
To avoid a serious problem with antibiotic resistance, this scientist suggested not only to improve the management of medicine and agriculture, but also learn better transfer of this phenomenon through water and soil.
Reference article: https://www.abc.es/ciencia/abci-encuentran-huellas-superbacterias-artico-201901282153_noticia.html,