Saturday , July 31 2021

The five most dependent substances in the world



What are the most attractive drugs?

According to the map created by academics and journalists Conversation There are several ways to measure this, and the answer also depends on the experts.

"From the perspective of different researchers, the potential for drug dependence can be assessed against damage that causes, at courage drug street, the extent to which the drug activates brain dopaminewhat goodbye people report the drug, the extent to which the drug causes it Symptoms of withdrawal and ease with which one person gets stuck to try drugs, "he explains.

Conversation This list is based on the work of David Nutt and his colleagues in 2007, who called for dependency experts to classify drugs.

1. Heroin

For experts consulted by Nutt, the heroine You have 3 points of maximum 3 in the Addiction Chart.

"Heroin is an opiate that causes dopamine levels in The award-winning brain system increases up to 200% in experimental animals. In addition to being the most attractive drug, heroin is also dangerous, because the dose that can cause death is just five times that which is needed to increase, "he explains.

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2. Cocaine

As he explains The conversation, Cocaine directly interfere with the process of transferring dopamine from one neuron to another. "In essence, cocaine prevents neurons from excluding the dopamine signal, causing abnormal activation of the brain's pathways. In animal experiments, cocaine causes the level of dopamine to increase more than three times the normal level. It is estimated that between 14 and 20 million people worldwide use cocaine and that in 2009 the cocaine market was worth about $ 75,000 million. "

3. Nicotine

It is the main ingredient in the cigarette and Quickly absorbed, so the experts consulted Nat put it in third place. It's a substance that billions spend: "More than two-thirds of Americans who tried to smoke claimed to have gained addiction during their lifetime. In 2002, the WHO estimates that there are over one billion smokers and it is estimated that tobacco will kill more from 8 million a year to 2030. "

4. Barbiturates ("tranquilizers")

They have many names (blue bullets, gorillas, pink ladies, etc.) And they are drugs they are used for anxiety and cause sleep.

"They interfere with chemical signaling in the brain, the effect of which is to close several regions of the brain. In small doses, barbiturates cause euphoria, but at higher doses can be lethal because they suppress respiration, "explains The Conversation.

Before the dependence on these substances was more common because medical prescriptions for this can be easily obtained.

"Here the role played by the context is dependent on it: if drug addiction is not available in the world, it can cause little damage," he says.

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5. Alcohol

On a scale of 3, experts classified alcohol as a 1.9. In experiments with animals, it turned out that alcohol increased levels of dopamine from 40 to 360%, "And the more they drank, the levels rose," writes The Conversation.

"Around 22% of people who took a drink will develop dependence on alcohol at some point in their lives, "he adds.


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