Many sugar-sweetened beverages have little or no nutritional value and many calories and their harmful effects on health are well documented. Now, a study links the consumption of too much sugar and even 100% natural fruit juices, with greater risk of premature death.
In particular, drink excessive amount of fruit juice can lead to an increased risk of premature death, which varies from 9% to 42%, according to the study, published on Friday in the magazine JAMA Network Open.
In general, the sugar found in orange juice, although naturally occurring, They are very similar to sugars added to soft drinks and other sweetened drinks, the study suggests.
"Chilled drinks, whether soft drinks or fruit juices, should be limited", Jean A. Wales, co-author of the study and assistant professor at the Department of Pediatrics at the Emory University in Atlanta, wrote in an e-mail.
Relationship with cardiovascular diseases
Seven cities in the United States, including New York and, most recently, Philadelphia, reported taxes for beverages sweetened with added sugar in an effort to reduce consumption. These laws often indicate how soda and other sweetened drinks contribute to the child's epidemic of obesity and high rates of diabetes in adults.
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The new study defined "sweet drinks" as freezing thirst freezers, such as infusions with soft drinks with fruit and 100% natural fruit juices that do not have added sugar. So, How does fruit juice accumulate against soda?
"Previous studies have shown that high intake of sugars, such as soft drinks and fruit juices, is associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease," explains Welsh. Obesity, diabetes, and high triglycerides (a type of blood fat) are among the risk factors associated with excessive consumption of sugar. "Several studies have seen how this spending can affect the risk of mortality," he said.
To solve this problem, she and her colleagues redirected data from the study "Reasons for geographical and racial differences in stroke", which tries to understand why more African Americans die from blows from other races and why people in the southeast have more moves than those in other parts of the United States.
From this multiethnic study, Welsh and his co-authors analyzed data from 13,440 adults over 45 years, almost 60% of men and almost 71% of them have overweight or obese.
People who consume 10% or more of their daily calories like sugar-sweetened drinks had a 44% greater risk of death due to coronary heart disease and a 14% greater risk of premature death than any cause compared to people who consume less than 5% of their daily calories as a sugar beverage, the study showed.
Each additional serving of 350 milliliters of fruit juice per day was associated with a 24% greater risk of death for any reason, and each additional serving of 350 milliliters of sweetener drinks a day was associated with a 11% higher risk. A similar relationship between sugars and death due to coronary disease has not been found.
"When we independently monitor our results from sugary beverages and juices, we must be clear that the risk presented is relative to the present at the lowest consumers of each," explains Welsh.
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I was not surprised by the findings. She and her co-authors said that "a series of possible biological mechanisms" explain the high risk of death. For example, research suggests that sugar beverages increase insulin resistance, which is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, while fructose consumption can stimulate hormones that promote weight gain around the waist, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Recommended amounts of fruit juice
This is one of the first studies to examine the relationship between sweetened drinks, including 100% fruit juices and premature death, wrote Martha Gush-Ferre, a scientist from Harvard's Nutrition Department, School of Public Health T.H. Chan and Dr. Frank B. Hu, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, in an editorial published along with a new study.
However, the study is limited in what it can tell us, said Guash-Ferre and Hu, who did not participate in the research. Since there have been so few deaths associated with coronary heart disease, the analysis here is considered weak; more time and more participants would probably give a stronger signal in any way. Also, the consumption of sweet drinks by each participant was observed only at the beginning of the study, completely based on self-information, which is not considered safe.
"Although fruit juices may not be harmful like sugar-sweetened drinks, its consumption should be moderate in children and adults, especially in people who want to control their weight, "wrote Guash-Ferre and Hu.
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Recommendations for children between 1 and 6 years old should limit the consumption of fruit juice to 170 milliliters per day, while children 7 and older, adolescents and adults should limit fruit juice to 230 milliliters daily, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics and Dietetic Guidelines for Americans.
"More research is needed to investigate the health risks and potential benefits of certain fruit juices," Guash-Ferre and Hu said.
Welsh said that we should consider fruit juices and sugary drinks when we think about the amount of sugar we consumed every day. Between the two, he threw the stairs in favor of fruit juice: "Given its content of vitamin and minerals, fruit juice in small quantities can have a beneficial effect that is not seen with carbonated drinks and juices".