The world's largest radio telescope, climate change mitigation experiments, the first academic center dedicated to marijuana and regulation of genetic publishing.
These are some of the main scientific topics that will focus on 2019, according to the magazine Nature.
Here we present some of the progress and announcements that are expected by the prestigious scientific publication.
1. "Responsible" genetic issue
The world of genetics will continue to debate the history that shook the world of science in December: the announcement by the Chinese researcher He Jiankui, who claimed to have created the first genetically modified babies.
I argued that I changed the genes of the twins called "Lulu" and "Nana" to prevent them from dealing with the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV.
The announcement deserves a great international condemnation, due to the risks from the method of genetic regulation of CRISPR, which can cause unwanted mutations.
In 2019, scientists will try to confirm whether the claim of He is true and will require mechanisms to ensure that the arrangement of human DNA takes place only responsibly and safely.
2. Cosmic signs
It is expected that the world's largest radio telescope, the Telescope Radio Spherical Opening 500 meters from China (Fast), to be fully operational in September.
Since the start of the first phase of the launch in 2016, the $ 170 million telescope has already revealed more than 50 new pulsars, dense dead stars rotate at high speed.
The telescope will require weak signals arising from phenomena such as radio waves and clouds from the cosmic gas.
On the other hand, astronomers are expected to decide in 2019 whether to build a mega telescope of 30 meters on Mount Mauna Kea in Hawaii.
The project suffered delays due to opposition by local residents, but justice dismissed recent requests in 2018.
3. Solar geoengineering
Numerous studies in 2018 warned about the severity of climate change. Perhaps the one with the greatest influence was "Global warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius", released in October by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or the IPCC.
The report says that greenhouse gas emissions should begin to fall in only 12 years to provide warming that does not exceed 1.5 degrees.
In 2019, the first experiments will be held specially designed to understand how to artificially cool the planet using solar geoengineering.
One such test is an experiment for the study of stratospherically controlled perturbations (SCoPEx) from Harvard University.
The researchers plan to launch a balloon that rises to about 20 kilometers by charging calcium carbonate, a very common mineral powder used in products such as cement, toothpaste, cakes or tablets to reduce digestion.
After the balloon is in place, it will blow dust into the atmosphere to create an "upset air mass" that will reach about one kilometer in length, explains Harvard scientists.
The aim is to study the dispersion of those particles that could ultimately reflect the sunlight.
4. Polar projects
In January, researchers from the United States and the United Kingdom will begin their largest joint mission in Antarctica for more than 70 years.
The goal of the five-year project is to determine whether the unstable Thwaites Glacier will begin to fall in the coming decades.
Scientists will use autonomous submersible vehicles and set up print sensors to study ocean conditions near this glacier as much as the state of Florida.
Months later, European researchers plan to practice ice in the ice dome, Little Dome C or Little Dome C in Antarctica, to try to take out 1.5 million years old ice cube.
If successful, the ice tube will be the oldest climate record on our planet.
5. Time of truth for the conflict
2019 may be the decisive year for plans to build a successor to the Great Hadron Collider, LHC, for an acronym in English.
Physicists in Japan have proposed to host International linear collider (ILC) in 2012, after discovering the Higgs boson, which can be studied at a greater depth in the new particle accelerator.
But the 2018 report commissioned by the Japanese government has criticized the enormous cost of the project, of about $ 7,000m.
Japan is the only country that has shown interest in hosting MLS, and it is expected that the country's government will issue a statement on it before March 7.
6. ABC on biosafety
The World Health Organization is scheduled to finalize, as expected, its biggest audit since 2004 Manual on biosafety in the laboratory.
The guide is used worldwide and recommends practices for managing high-risk pathogens such as Ebola.
The review will increase the focus on risk assessment and training of staff in the laboratory.
7. Marijuana Center
Researchers in Canada should see the first results of more studies on biology and cannabis cultivation.
In October 2018, Canada legalizes cannabis for all purposes (the second nation in the world to do so, after Uruguay).
That decision has led to a massive increase in the funding of marijuana studies by provincial and federal agencies.
It is expected that by the end of 2019 scientists in UUniversity of Guelph inaugurates the first academic center dedicated to marijuana research in Canada.
The Center will study all aspects of the plant, from its genetics to its potential health benefits.