URBAN – Your poodle can have a French pedigree, but Siberia played a major role in introducing dogs to America.
It is part of a survey conducted at the University of Illinois and the State Archaeological Overview of Illinois, based on dog remains, including two dogs buried back at the site of Illinois through the Mississippi River of St. Louis.
This loving, ceremonial funeral and about 50 fossilized dogs help to tell the story, the newspaper News-Gazette writes.
This genetic code tells us not only about dogs, but potentially for people who have crossed the land bridge that once existed between Siberia and Alaska, says Ripan Malhi, professor of anthropology and the Faculty of Integrative Biology.
The Illinois State Archaeological Survey revealed several sites with dogs in them.
Not wanting to destroy valuable scientific and cultural relics, the Malhi team took samples of domestic dogs that could be close to 10,000 years, probably the oldest in America.
"The quantity removed is the size of the (dental stone) cavity," he said.
Malhi worked closely with Kelsey Whit Dillon, who led the work of the mitochondrial DNA gene, following the mother's line of dogs, as a graduate student here. (She is now a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California-Mercedes.)
In a clean room – no trace of pollutants – researchers extracted DNA. It was then sequenced in another laboratory to create a "genomic library".
"DNA will give us millions of DNA bits," Malhi said, some of which have long been contaminated with microbes or even human interference.
These first dogs in America arrived from Siberia, said Malhi, and largely disappeared after European contact, the extreme version of the population is falling with the Indians after contact.
During the Ice Age (lasting about 14,500 years ago), the sea level was lower, and the region between western Siberia and eastern Alaska was the whole country, not the Bering's territory that we know today. The region is known as "Beringia", and people (and dogs) have managed to cross the land bridge due to this lower level of the sea, added Wit Dillon.
Scientists debate how exactly the native dogs generally fell from the gene pool: Our ancestors may have killed them to prevent interference with the dogs they had already grown to hunt and flock, or could have been eaten in time of starvation.
The disease is the most commonly occurring cause, as it happened to the Indians.
In the journal Science, researchers claim that the first dogs in America were not forced by North American wolves.
Probably, they wrote, the dogs followed accompanying people over the land bridge that once connected North America across Siberia to America.
At an archaeological site near Cahokia called Janey B. Goode, other researchers found dogs with signs on the shoulders.
Malhi said that the stamps could mean that dogs were not only our best friends, but our associates, helping to pull shopping carts or other things similar to their continued use with sleighs in the Northwest.
Malhi's specialty follows genetic history, and his articles have titles such as "Distribution of Y chromosomes in born North Americans: a study of the population of Athapascan population."
He worked closely with the peoples of the First Nations in British Columbia and Alaska, including the study of an invaluable source of food, salmon.
Nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA tell stories in different ways.
Nuclear DNA is the type of DNA most likely to be thought of in humans – your 23 pairs of chromosomes are all nuclear DNA, and you inherit half of them from a mother and one half of the father, "explained Vit Dillon.
"Your mitochondrial DNA is inherited by your mother," she said, "and is found in many more copies per cell of your nuclear DNA, so it's easier to find in ancient DNA samples that are usually degraded and fragmented" .
There are questions about when and where the dogs were tamed.
"Dogs were probably injected between 15,000 and 21,000 years, somewhere in Europe or in Asia," said Wit Dillon. "Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Central Asia are proposed as places where dogs originate, but we do not have a clear answer."
It is possible that the dogs appeared in several "birth" places.
By the way, who dumps that every dog's end ends up? Pain for you, but of great value to science as fossilized coprolites.
UI Graduate Student Anthropology Kartik Yarlagadda is looking for microbiomes in coprolites, working with Malhi.
In modern studies, he knows, the tested samples contain a large number of microbes that reflect a number of factors, including host genetics, nutrition and the environment.
"Because the croats are an ancient fecal specimen, they still contain a certain amount of DNA residue from the microbes that lived in dogs at that time. This is especially interesting because ancient microbials give us additional insights into the individual's life history," said Yaragaldda.