Friday , May 14 2021

Stone tools found in Algeria provide evidence Human origin spread across Africa



The collection of prehistoric stone tools and bones of animal bones was discovered in 1992 at the archaeological site Ain Bucherit on the northeastern Algerian plateau of the Algerian, now dating back to the 2.4 million years old. This dating directly disputes the current evolutionary paradigm that East Africa is "the cradle of humanity" because they are roughly the same age as the oldest known tools found in Gona, Ethiopia, dating back to 2.6 million years.

The survey was published in the journal Science, and article in Nature informs that "The oldest known widespread stone tool technology, called Aldouan, is thought to have originated in East Africa about 2.6 million years ago and then spread across the continent." But this new discovery suggests that the production of tools "can appear independently in different parts of Africa".

A reconstructed skull of Australopithecus garhi, one of the species that used tools of the type of aldean. (Ji-Elle / CC BY SA 3.0)

A reconstructed skull of Australopithecus garhi, one of the species that used tools of the type of aldean. (Ji-Elle / CC BY SA 3.0)

Scenario for more humanity?

Archaeologists report Science said the tools were "typical of the Oldoan stone tools already known in East Africa" ​​and that "they were unearthed near dozens of fossilized animal bones, with clipped marks on them, from early crocodiles, elephants and hypopotamuses and archaeologists consider this can be evidence of eating meat. "

Olov's artifacts, including unified limestone cores (1 and 9); bifacial core made of limestone (10) and cream (2); polyadeal limestone cores (11 and 12); subspheric limestone core (3); flakes of cream on the cream (7, 16 and 17) and on limestone (4, 5, 6, 13 and 14); and retouched pieces of cream (8 and 15). (Sahnouni, M. et al.)

Olov's artifacts, including unified limestone cores (1 and 9); bifacial core made of limestone (10) and cream (2); polyadeal limestone cores (11 and 12); subspheric limestone core (3); flakes of cream on the cream (7, 16 and 17) and on limestone (4, 5, 6, 13 and 14); and retouched pieces of cream (8 and 15). ( Sahnouni, M. et al .)

These new findings suggest that hominians inhabiting North Africa about 600,000 years earlier than previously thought, and according to an article in Independent , this also means that "human ancestors may have walked as people far earlier than they thought." According to Professor Mohamed Sahnuni at the National Human Evolution Research Center in Spain, which led the study: "One hypothesis is that our early ancestors quickly carried the stone tools with them outside of East Africa and other regions." Another is a scenario with multiple origins, in which early hominids created and used tools in eastern and northern Africa. "" The evidence from Algeria shows that the cradle of humanity is not limited to East Africa. Instead of the entire African continent, it was a cradle of humanity, "he added. esorot Sahnoun.

Battle for the planet of the monkeys

"But who made the tools"? asks an article in A new scientist . "In Ain Buserrit there are no human fossils, so the identity of the instrument is unclear. The evolution of Hominin 2.4 million years ago was in progress. Successful previous hominins, including Australopithecus, began to disappear, and the early species of Homo were taken. "Professor Sanuni doubts that" Algerian tools were made from one of these wounds Homo species. "Professor Jessica Thompson at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, who did not participate in the study, told reporters in the" New Scientist "" If I have a meeting and I had to choose one, it would be the one I'd choose. "

The original complete skull (without upper teeth and mandible) of the 2.1 million years old sample australopetekes afrikanus, the so-called. Mrs Ples, discovered in South Africa. (Jose Braga, Didier Descuen / CC BY SA 4.0)

The original complete skull (without upper teeth and mandible) of the 2.1 million years old sample australopetekes afrikanus, the so-called. Mrs Ples, discovered in South Africa. (Jose Braga, Didier Descuen / CC BY SA 4.0)

However, Professor Thompson, who gives some degree of skepticism to some of the claims of scientists, for example, while she agrees that the stones are actually tools, "she is not convinced that the bones of the animals are covered with all sorts of signs because" natural processes can scratch the surface of the bones in a similar way. "In addition, Thompson also contests the dating of stone tools, saying that" they may not be 2.4 million years old since that date takes over the soil and sediment in Ain Boucherit Akumul Earlier at a steady rate. "

Evidence of Amin Buscherit's factory dominance of the dominant activity. (A and B) Mark for cutting off the mid-size counter (A) counter with measurement details of the SEM micrograph (B). (C and D) Cutmarked equine calcaneum (C) with SEM micrographic details (D). (E) Hammerston percussion with medium long bone. (F) Bone shell. (G) Equidibled tibia showing cortical percussion. (Sahnouni, M. et al)

Evidence of Amin Buscherit's factory dominance of the dominant activity. (A and B) Mark for cutting off the mid-size counter (A) counter with measurement details of the SEM micrograph (B). (C and D) Cutmarked equine calcaneum (C) with SEM micrographic details (D). (E) Hammerston percussion with medium long bone. (F) Bone shell. (G) Equidibled tibia showing cortical percussion. ( Sahnouni, M. et al )

Whether the bone markings are natural or engraved by hand, only time will be shown, but professors Sahnouni and colleague Mathieu Duval concluded in a joint article: "This new discovery modifies our understanding of the time and diffusion of the tool of the stone tool tool Aldouan in throughout Africa and beyond the continent. "

Superb picture: the core of the stone of the Oldoan, freshly dug in Ein Bucherit, Algeria. Source: M. Sahnuny

From Ashley Covey


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