Monday , August 2 2021

Some hoof quivers are better suited for combating nectar nutrition

Sparkling purple and brown purple show their elaborate lateral feathers to intimidate one another and deter each other from using their weapons orders, showing teeth like buzz and tips such as knives.
Image: Cristian Irian, Finca Colibrí Gorriazul, Colombia

With their elongated bills and specially adapted languages, the holsters are built to extract nectar from the flowers. However, as research suggests, some South American moths have developed beaks designed to shoot, expose and strike – at the expense of feeding.

The cereal is the ultimate sugars of sugar, which reduce the sweet nectar inside the flowers to gain a rapid increase in energy. Can not just get out of sugar, packs also eat insects, such as fruit flies, to add important minerals and nutrients to their diet. These tiny birds are unnecessary dishes, enjoy 10-minute intervals throughout the day. Such is the price for the type that hides its wings 700 times per second and hits the heart 600 times every minute (or 1,200 times when physically performed alone).

Because sugar is a fuel that makes the way of life of the hips possible, nature gives them a beak that suits the task. Of the 300 species of nettles in the world, most feature specialized bills that can easily slip into flowers and take the precious nectar inside. These beaks tend to be long and flexible, with soft edges, a blunt tip and a shape of a spoon. These birds are also characterized by highly specialized languages ​​that turn into a two-pronged fork when in contact with nectar, allowing birds to better absorb the fluid.

Crochet crabs are also used to snatch insects and self-defense, but their primary goal is for nectar feeding – or so we thought. A new study published today in Integrative Biographical Biology shows that men of some types of tropical hummingbirds in South America have beaks that are more suitable for fencing, shouting and squeezing behavior. Ornithologist Alejandro Rico-Guevara, a leading study author and professor at Berkeley University, said these additives were used by male hummingbirds to fight other men who made them to gain access to food and women.

The mascot of the male Androdon aequatorialis The colums have circumvention with backlogs and addicts.
Picture: Christina Hurme, Colombia

"We understand the lives of hummingbirds how to drink efficiently from flowers, but then suddenly we see these strange morphologies [bill shapes]… that have no sense in terms of the efficiency of collecting nectar, "Rico-Guaver said in a statement." Looking at these tips for bizarre accounts, you will never expect that they are from the hip or it would be useful to press the language ".

Using high-speed cameras, the Rico-Guaver team documented some behavior in some species of tropical feeders in Colombia, Brazil, Peru and Costa Rica, including hummingbirds (Androdon aequatorialis) and the desert (Ramphodon naevius). These behaviors include warlike actions, such as messing up other birds. The analysis of these accounts in the laboratory revealed physical characteristics that are consistent with the fighting, such as hard bills, pinned tips and rear varieties that face teeth. These accounts, said Rico-Guaver, are good for apologizing and pressuring an opponent, allowing birds to extract a strange feather or two of their rivals.

The most likely reason for these weapons bills, Rico-Guevara said, is due to increased competition among feeders in the tropics. In North America, three or four species of coltors compete for resources in a dwelling, while in the tropics the number is closer to 15. For men with weapons bills, adaptation is good for leveling rivals, but it comes to the cost of efficiency feeding. But, as Rico-Guevara pointed out, it is a compromise that makes sense.

"We found that these traits can be related to a different kind of strategy: rather than feeding on a particular form of flowers, some birds try to exclude all of the patch, although they can not be fed as feeders without weapons" , said Rico-Guevara. "If you're good enough to keep your competitors away, then it does not matter how well you use the resources in the flower you defend, you have it all for yourself."

The difference between male (top) and feminine (bottom) lashes of sparkling violet hummingbirds.
Picture: A. Rico-Guevara et al., 2019

With their heavy, outgoing beaks, male feeders can protect their food sources. They are also used for dueling and other men looking for women in places to collect feeders known as a cure. Rico-Guavara compares a smile with a singles bar, where men gather together and sing their hearts in the hope of attracting a colleague.

"The females go to these small spaces in the woods and collect the man with whom to make money," he said. "If you can get a place in that bar, it will give you the opportunity to reproduce. Therefore, they are not struggling to access resources, as in territorials, but they are actually struggling for the opportunity to reproduce. And in short moments when there are no fights, they go to feed themselves with different flowers. "

Looking ahead to future research, Rico-Guevara would like to measure the extent to which these men have lost their ability to feed as a result of their beak weapons and understand why some male combatants who engage in violence – male and female – paradise " t have developed their own weapons bills.

[Integrative Organismal Biology]

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