As coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, more information is emerging about how the virus spreads. Household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-KOV-2) has been identified as one of the major sources of KOVID-19 spread.
Secondary attack rates between household contacts are estimated to be five to ten times higher than for household contacts. However, it is not clear which household members are more likely to spread the virus.
Now, a team of researchers from Ontario Public Health and the Sunnybrook Research Institute aims to determine the factors that drive coronavirus transmission in the household. Specifically, the researchers wanted to compare the characteristics of household cases with secondary transmission than those that did not.
The team found that longer delays in testing and being a man were associated with a higher risk of secondary transmission to households. Also, households with more family members are more likely to experience the spread of KOVID-19.
The study, published on the print server medRxiv *, highlights how household transmission contributes to the growing number of coronavirus cases, which now number over 43.89 million worldwide.
The team used address matching to identify all households with confirmed SARS-COV-2 infections from Ontario, Canada from January to July to come up with the study findings. The researchers compared the characteristics of cases in households that had secondary transmission with those that did not. To obtain the data, they used provincial disease reporting systems introduced by local public health units.
Secondary transmission occurs when cases occur 1 to 14 days after the identification of the first person to have the coronavirus. The team used the symptom onset date or the sample collection date. Furthermore, they also looked at a wide range of individual-level and neighborhood-level covariances related to household transmission.
The line represents the direction of transmission from the case index to the secondary letter. The shadow of the line represents the age group or risk group of the index. The line width is proportional to the frequency of transmission between the index and secondary cases in their respective age or risk groups. Years = years
Findings from the study
Overall, more than 38,000 confirmed cases of KOVID-19 were reported in Ontario. After removing some cases based on inclusion criteria, the team had more than 26,000 cases living in private households. Of these, more than 18,000 cases were from households without secondary transmission, and more than 7,900 cases were from households with secondary transmission.
The team found that longer delays in testing and the man contribute to a higher risk of secondary transmission to the house or apartment. On the other hand, being a healthcare professional or associated with a known epidemic is associated with a lower chance of household transmission.
The team also found that neighborhoods with a larger average family size and a higher percentage of people living in a room were associated with a higher chance of household relocation. This means that the more people living in a home, the greater the risk of KOVID-19 occurring in the household.
“Our findings on higher household transfer rates between neighborhoods with a higher percentage of more people per room and more family households may support this hypothesis, and our association with economic family size may capture aspects of neighborhood overcrowding.” “, Explained the team.
Household transmission plays a key role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The study recommends that it be essential for people to be tested immediately or as soon as symptoms appear. In this way, they will take precautions to protect other family members.
“Ideally, individuals should be tested on the day of onset of symptoms, because even a 1-day delay was associated with an increased chance of secondary transmission. “Additionally, if the cases live with other people, it may also be important to try to isolate yourself in a room alone or outside the home, if possible.”
These mitigation strategies can be considered by public health officials to combat household relocation. Additional studies need to be conducted to focus on the role of children and young people in household transmission.
The coronavirus pandemic has now killed more than 1.16 million people. The United States remains the hardest hit country, reporting more than 8.77 million cases, followed by India, with a staggering 7.94 million people.
* Important note
medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not reviewed by reviews and therefore should not be considered convincing, conduct clinical practice / health-related behavior, or be treated as established information.