Posted on April 16, 2019
The Evolution Cutting Scissors of Permians, a series of exterminations, including the Judgment Day in the period known as the Great Dying, which killed more than 95 per cent of Earth's life, cut the growing tree of life to only one branch or two of the predecessors of mammals, including those of our ancestors. This is the forgotten world of the Permian epoch, the super-continent of Pangea, inhabited by our bizarre and frightening relatives, long dried out of the mythical rule of the dinosaurs that followed.
The idea that our relatives ruled the world more than 250 million years ago, continues Peter Branen The end of the world, "It might come as a surprise to those who turned down from the idea that mammals do not do this" while dinosaurs are not cleared of a catastrophe nearly 200 million years later. And that's true, because these Permian beasts – called synapsids – they were still far from being real mammals. "
New researchers say the mercury buried in an ancient rock provides the strongest evidence that volcanoes have caused the largest mass extinction in Earth's history. Paleontologists at the University of Cincinnati and the China University of Earth Sciences have said that they have found a jump in mercury in the geological record of nearly a dozen locations around the world, which gives convincing evidence that volcanic eruptions are guilty of this global cataclysm.
The eruptions burned huge deposits of coal, releasing high mercury vapors into the atmosphere. Finally, it rained down into the sea layer around the planet, creating an elementary signature of a catastrophe that would indicate the age of the dinosaurs.
"The country 2100?" -96% of the ocean life "extinguishes for oxygen" during the great dying
"Volcanic activities, including emissions of volcanic gases and the burning of organic matter, have brought abundant mercury to the surface of the Earth," said chief author Yu Shen, an associate professor at the China University of Science for the Earth.
Mass extermination occurred in what scientists call the Permi-Triass border (PTB). Mass extinction destroyed much of the land and sea life before the emergence of dinosaurs. Some of them were prehistoric monsters with their own rights, such as fierce gorzopsids that looked like a cross between a tiger of a saber and a dragon Komodo.
"The Moments of the Twilight of Perm," writes Brain, "belonged to the last large group of predecessors of the Persian mammal: the therapists. The therapsids included dicinodons, herbivores, the size of cows with gigantic biscuits and beaks that probably hit the bush in the herds. Before flowers, fruits or grass, these vegetable dishes had to do something in a world that was definitely short for diets. In fact, much of the planet was probably unsuitable for living. created by Ordovic, and by Permians this marriage on the continents was consumed: the terrestrial planets were reunited after hundreds of millions of years to form Pangea, a giant supercontinent stretching from one pole to another. The infinite interior of this supercontinent was savagely gloomy and dry – a kind of global North Dakota – with unhealthy heat and a fierce cold, practically untouched by rain. "
The eruptions occurred in a volcanic system called Siberian locks in what is now central Russia. Many of the eruptions have not occurred in volcanic-like cones, but through deep cracks in the ground. The eruptions were frequent and long-lasting, and their anger lasted several hundred thousand years.
"Great Dying" – our development can be more like science fiction than anything in the history of the Earth
"Typically, when you have large, explosive volcanic eruptions, a lot of mercury is released into the atmosphere," said Thomas Algeo, a professor of geology at the McMicken College of Arts and Sciences.
"Mercury is a relatively new indicator for researchers. It has become a hot topic for exploring volcanic impacts on major events in Earth's history," Algeo said.
The researchers use aging fossilized teeth of lame-like creatures, called condondons, to give a date on the rock in which the mercury is deposited. Like most other creatures on the planet, condoms were destroyed by the disaster.
The eruptions led to 3 million cubic kilometers of ash high in the air during this extended period. To take this in perspective, the 1980 eruption of the Mount Saints. Helens in Washington sent only one mile of ash into the atmosphere, although the ash fell on the windshield of a car as much as Oklahoma.
In fact, Algeo says syrup eruptions in the inventions have thrown so much material into the air, especially greenhouse gas gases, which warmer the planet on average about 10 degrees Celsius.
Climate warming is likely to be one of the biggest culprits in mass extermination, he said. But acid rain will spoil the many water bodies and increase the acidity of the global oceans. And warmer waters would have more dead zones than lack of dissolved oxygen.
"We often leave scratches on our heads about what exactly is the worst. Creatures adapted to colder environments would be out of luck," Algeo said. "So my assumption is a change in temperature will be No. 1 killer. The effects would have worsened with acidification and other toxins in the environment."
Expansion over a long period of time, eruption after eruption prevented the Earth's food chain from recovering.
"It's not necessarily the intensity, it's the duration that matters," Algeria said. "The longer this lasted, the greater pressure was put on the environment."
"Dinosaurs of the Moon" – Impossible earthquake measuring 12 degrees that changed our world
Also, the Earth was slow to recover from the disaster, because ongoing disturbances continued to destroy biodiversity, he said.
The country witnessed five known mass disappearances over 4.5 billion years ago.
Scientists used another elementary signature – iridium – to determine the possible cause of global extermination of masses that wiped out dinosaurs 65 million years ago. They believe that a huge hustle hit what is now Mexico.
As a result of the appearance of a superheated land in the atmosphere, a material containing iridium, which is located in the geological records throughout the world, rained.
Shen said the mercury signature provides convincing evidence that eruptions in the Siberian traps are responsible for the disaster. Now researchers are trying to determine the extent of eruptions and which effects on the environment, in particular, are most responsible for mass death, especially for terrestrial animals and plants.
"The release of carbon in the atmosphere by human beings is similar to the situation in the late Permian, where the abundant carbon was free from the Siberian eruptions," Shen said.
Algeria said it was a cause for concern.
"The multitude of biologists believe that we are on the verge of another mass extermination – the sixth wholesale. And I share that view," Algeo said. "What we need to learn is that this will be a serious business that will harm human interests, so we need to work to minimize the damage."
People living in marginal areas, such as dry deserts, will first suffer. This will lead to more climate refugees around the world.
"We will probably see more hunger and mass migration in the worst affected areas, and this is a global issue and we need to recognize and act proactively. It is much easier to solve these problems before a crisis arises."
The image at the top of the page shows a volcanic eruption that describes the predatory goncolosid crash during the Perm Period. Margaret Weiner / US Creative Services
Daily Galaxy through the University of Cincinnati and Peter Brennan, End of the World