PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] – Somites do not have weapons or languages to help them catch and swallow their prey – instead, som prepares a strike to move his head.
Using powerful X-ray technology, Brown University scientists tracked catches because they caught it and swallowed prey to develop a precise understanding of the complex set of movements needed to create the suction needed for eating. They found that many of the bones in the skull skull work coordinated to catch the food. However, bones move more independently when the fish swallows.
"Fish have the most mobile skulls of" vertebrates, "said Aaron Olsen, a postdoctoral researcher at Braun's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. "Fish have more than a dozen moving parts in the skull, and they are connected together with joints and ligaments in these closed loops called" connections "in engineering. For comparison, people move through long jaws and bones from the middle ear, but that's it Fish heads also have many different forms, so we can study how these complex systems developed in many different fish lines. "
The findings were published on Wednesday, April 17, in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B..
To make these remarks, Olsen and his colleagues used 3D imaging technology called the X-ray X-ray X-ray Reconstruction, which was developed in Brown. The technology combines CT scans with high-speed X-ray video, aided by small implanted metal markers, to create visualizations of how bones and muscles move in humans and animals. The technique is so precise that scientists can track buggy movements equivalent only to the width of human hair.
"XROMM basically gives us an X-ray vision to see how more bones are moving within the animal as they do behavior," said Olsen.
In this study, the team used XROMM to watch three capture catch and swallow prey, including pellets for food, squid and worm pieces. First, the fish move their mustard-like cows back and forth into the reservoir. Immediately after the shield touches a piece of food, the four primary bones that surround the mouth and throat spread outwards in a consistent and coordinated way to form the suction needed to catch it.
On the other hand, these bones move more independently and less consistently as the fish swallow. Olsen is not sure why swallowing is less coordinated.
"It seems that different tasks need different levels of coordination," said Olsen. "But what determines a good level of coordination for a particular task is an open question. What our research shows is that these natural behaviors have different levels of coordination. We are not sure if they strictly require different levels of coordination."
Earlier research from Brown's laboratory professor and senior researcher Elizabeth Bunerd used XROMM to study the behavior of other fish, including bass and sharks. Largemouth bass stems from their jaws, which help catch their prey. Somme can not throw out their jaws in that way, said Olsen. Instead, the bone critical for that action in the bass has evolved into the base of the cows of catfish, such as mustaches, he added.
Bamboo sharks are distant from all bony fish, including catfish. However, both bamboo sharks and catfish have powerful shoulders, or pectoral belts, that both species are intensively moving during feeding, Olsen said.
Comparing the different types of fish with different body shapes, skull structures and feeding behavior, one can see how fish with different body shapes developed different structures and mechanisms for solving similar tasks, Olsen said.
The members of the research team are currently using XROMM to monitor the characteristic "vacuum" behavior of koi. Other members of the Brainerd Laboratory study the behavior of other fish species.
Olsen is in the process of constructing a model that will explain how the bones and ligaments that make up the skull of the cat are moving together as a complex system.
Apart from Olsen and Brainer, other authors include Ariel Camp from Brown and Patricia Hernandez of George Washington University. The National Science Foundation (grants 1612230, 1655756 and 1661129) and the Bushnell Research and Education Fund have supported the research.
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